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biologyexam3review

1 parent cell produces 4 daughter cells that can

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1 parent cell produces 4 daughter cells that can become gametes Each daughter cell (gamete) has half the genetic material of the parent cell So gametes are genetically different from the parent cell & from each other - Meiosis I : separates the duplicated pairs of chromosomes- each daughter gets one pair (1 à 2) - Meiosis II : separates the homologues & puts one chromosome into each daughter cell (2 à 4) -
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- MITOSIS - Phases of mitotic cell division: o Interphase = a time for acquisition of nutrients, growth, & chromosome duplication Cells spend most time in interphase o Actual division ( mitosis ) = 1 copy of every chromosome & half of the cell’s cytoplasm are split into 2 daughter cells - Interphase is divided into 3 phases: o G 1 (growth phase 1) = acquisition of nutrients & growth to proper size o S (synthesis phase) = DNA synthesis- every chromosome is replicated o Briefly has 92 chromosomes (46 + 46) o G 2 (growth phase 2) = completion of cell growth & preparation for mitotic cell division - Basically: o Duplicated chromosomes are separated o Then pulled to opposite ends of the cell - Then the cell divides along the middle Cloning: brief process, donor vs. surrogate, poor success rate - Cloning animals: the basics o 1 st the chromosomes are removed from a donor egg Goes from haploid à no DNA o Then the diploid set of chromosomes from a normal cell is injected into the egg Goes from no DNA à diploid o The now-diploid egg carries only the chromosomes from the donor cell Egg cell is now a genetic clone/identical (rather than mixing chromosomes from 1 sperm & 1 egg - The embryo that develops is implanted into the uterus of a surrogate (birth mother) -
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