浆细胞效应细胞分泌大量蛋白质这些蛋白质对呈递的抗原具有特异� The antibody molecules are modeled after the

浆细胞效应细胞分泌大量蛋白质这些蛋白

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浆细胞(效应细胞)分泌大量蛋白质,这些蛋白质对呈递的抗原具有特异性。 The antibody molecules are modeled after the receptors of the precursor B lymphatic cell. 以前体 B 淋巴细胞的受体为模型模拟抗体分子。 These antibodies are transported by the blood plasma and the lymphatic system to the site of the target antigen, where they initiate its neutralization or destruction. 这些抗体被血浆和淋巴系统转运到靶抗原的位点,在那里它们开始中和或破坏。 Takes 4 – 5 days for this response to occur
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Humoral immunity Outline
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Humoral immunity Once the antigens have been eliminated, most plasma (effectors) cells undergo apoptosis (self-destruct) 一旦消除了抗原,大多数浆细胞(效应细胞)就会发生凋亡(自毁) A few continue to exist, become memory cells 少数继续存在,成为存储单元 Memory cells – contain the code to develop antibodies 记忆细胞 包含开发抗体的代码 if that antigen show up again 如果那个抗原再次出现 Can produce antibodies very quickly 可以很快产生抗体 Will bind with an even higher affinity to the antigen 与抗原的结合力更高
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Memory Cells Memory Cell
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Humoral immunity and Vaccines Vaccine – exposes a patient to a weakened version of a virus (flu) 疫苗 使患者接触弱毒的病毒(流感) The patient develops antibodies through this adaptive process 患者通过这种适应性过程产生抗体 if the person is then exposed to the flu in the community = fast response 如果此人随后遭受社区流感 = 快速反应 (9.5 minutes) Great review – please focus on vaccines for this unit
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Cell mediated Immunity T lymphocytes – mature in the thymus (a gland in the mediastinum) T 淋巴细胞 在胸腺(纵隔中的腺体)成熟 Once they come into direct contact with an antigen, they begin to proliferate and differentiate 一旦与抗原直接接触,它们就会开始增殖和分化 (1) Cytotoxic T lymphocytes 细胞毒性 T 淋巴细胞 (2 ) Helper T lymphocytes 辅助性 T 淋巴细胞
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Cytotoxic T lymphocytes Direct destruction of antigen carrying cells (tumor and viruses containing cells) 直接破坏携带抗原的细胞(肿瘤细胞和含病毒的细胞) Detect pathogens inside the cell where antibodies cannot recognize them 检测细胞内无法识别抗体的病原体 Recognize the changes on the cell surface 识别细胞表面的变化 Destroy the cells that are infected with viruses (inside the cells) 销毁被病毒感染的细胞(细胞内部) Before the more virus is released 在释放更多病毒之前
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Helper T lymphocytes Trigger humoral and cell-mediated responses – provide a regulatory function 触发体液和细胞介导的反应 - 提供调节功能 Enhancing the reactions of other types of T lymphocytes 增强其他类型 T 淋巴细胞的反应 (1) – activate macrophages (secondary responders) by secreting chemokines which stimulate phagocytosis 1 通过分泌刺激吞噬作用的趋化因子来激活巨噬细胞(次级反应者) (2) help to activate B lymphocytes to produce antibodies 2 )帮助激活 B 淋巴细胞产生抗体
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Antibodies (Immunoglobulins) Is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells 是主要由浆细胞产生的大的 Y 形蛋白质 Used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses 免疫系统用来中和病原体,例如病原细菌和病毒 Antibodies recognize and latch onto antigens to remove them from the body 抗体识别并锁住抗原以将其从体内清除 Neutralization: By attaching themselves to some invading microbes, other antibodies can render such microorganisms immobile or prevent them from penetrating body cells 中和作用:通过将自身附着于某些入侵的微生物上,其他抗体可使这些微生物无法移动或阻止其穿透 人体细胞
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