1860FW12L2 -Antiquity, the Renaissance, Sci Rev

Interpretation and explanation 3 lecturer student or

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Interpretation and explanation 3. Lecturer, student, or professional scribe 1650 BCE, copy of original hieroglyphics into cursive form How do we know this?
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Ebers papyrus Discovered 1862 in Thebes, purchased 1873 by George Ebers of Leipzig Written about the same time as Smith papyrus Copy of older treatise than Smith’s 900 prescriptions
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Ancient Egyptian Medicine: the Brain versus the Heart Head injuries described in the Smith papyrus Associated with coordination problems Treatment described Ebers - treatments The heart is the centre of intelligence and consciousness, more important than the brain For wellness, 36 channels from the heart need to be open The heart and other inner organs were preserved by mummification for the afterlife The heart is weighed after death against a feather by Anubis to determine its owner’s fate
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Thales of Miletus circa 590-580 BCE first recorded description of the fundamental substratum of the world everything is made of water (monism) external appearance can be different from internal reality search for hidden causes in nature
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Pythagoras of Samos, circa 580BCE contemporary of Thales learned math and astronomy in Egypt set up school (secret religious community) in Croton colony, Sicily investigated mathematical ratios in music (ratios of lengths of string, harmony) 4 elements – earth, air, water and fire (can be transmuted into each other) More primitive element underneath these 4
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Democritus of Abdura circa 460 BCE 2 kinds of things – atoms in motion, and void space (monist) atomos = “uncuttable” diverse sizes and shapes account for properties of matter contrary to sense perceptions
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Empedocles of Agrigentum, circa 492-430 BCE Agrigentum is in Sicily medicine and public health 4 element theory – earth, air, water, fire (pluralism) love is centripetal force (bringing together) strife is centrifugal force (driving apart) originally 4 elements were separate “there is no birth or death of things, only the intermingling and exchange of parts”
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Elements and their Properties
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Alcmaeon, circa 5th century BCE Earliest recorded work using dissection (may have been human) Description of optic nerves Cut nerves behind eyes in animals Brain is central organ of sensation and thought Still a debate – heart thought to be the centre by some
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Hippocrates of Cos 460-370 BCE “Father of Medicine” Corpus Hippocraticum attributed to him, though some works likely by other authors Attributed illness and health to physical causes (not spirits)
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Hippocrates, cont’d Brain is the control centre of the body Mental illness and seizures are not result of evil spirits 4 elements and their qualities need to be brought into balance Humoral theory
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  • Spring '08
  • AGARD/LANDZBY
  • Ancient Egypt, Cerebrospinal fluid, Galen, Ventricular system, Edwin Smith Papyrus

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