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Use of authority by the manager area of freedom by

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Use of authorityBy the ManagerArea of FreedomBy subordinate
CON’TMoving along the continuum, the manager might becharacterized according to the degree of control thatis maintained over subordinates. It needs to beemphasized, though, that neither extreme of thecontinuum is absolute as there is always somelimitation on authority and on freedom. From reviewof Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s theory, Mullinsidentifies some four leadership styles by themanager: Tells, sells, consults, and joins.
(i) TELLS: The leader identifies a problem, chooses decisionand announces this to subordinates, expecting them toimplement it without an opportunity for participation.(ii) SELLS: The manager still chooses a decision but recognizesthe possibility of some resistance from those faced with thedecision and attempts to persuade subordinates to accept it.(iii) CONSULTS: The manager identifies the problem but doesnot choose a decision until the problem is presented to thegroup, and the manager has listened to the advice andsolutions suggested by subordinates.( iv)JOINS: The leader after identifying the problem and thelimits within which the decision must be chosen and thenpasses to the group, with the leaders as a member the right tomake decisions.
The Managerial/Leadership Grid.Building on the Ohio State and Michigan Studies,Blake and Mouton from the university of Texasdeveloped the managerial grid (1964).The grid isprobably the most popular way of identifyingleadership styles. The grid is the framework on whichstyles of behavior may be plotted.These researchers proposed a graphic portrayal ofleadership styles through a managerial grid(sometimes called leadership grid).
The grid depicted two dimensions of leader behavior,concern for people, i.e concern for people doing the work(accommodating people’s needs and giving them priority) ony-axis and concern for production (keeping tight schedules)on x-axis, with each dimension ranging from low (1) to high(9), thus creating 81 different positions in which the leader’sstyle may fall. Out of these 81 positions resulted fiveleadership styles discussed below.Usually there is more thought given to one factor comparedwith the other. Those factors are plotted on the grid usingthe horizontal axis – degree of concern for work – runningfrom 1 ( low) to 9 ( high ); and the vertical axis – concern forpeople – running from 1 ( low ) to 9 ( high) as depicted in fig.A. Concern for production is the amount of emphasis whichthe manager places on accomplishing the task in hand,achieving a high level of production and getting result
for profit .Concern for people is the amount ofemphasis which the manager gives to subordinatesand colleagues as individuals and to their needs andexpectations.

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Term
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Nature, Experience, Mullins

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