They also studied under microscope observed that the

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lower 3rd molar. They also studied under microscope & observed that the most constant element in RMC was a myelinated nerve. The branches of mandibular division of inferior alveolar nerve may arise high in the infratemporal fossa as explained by Ikeda et al [23] in his study. These fibres extend to the base of coronoid process & enter the mandible in retromolar fossa and innervates the lower molar. Sutton [24] first of all explained additional sensory nerve fibres in RMF. He explained the relationship between the presence of this foramen and the failure of obtaining analgesia using classical anesthetic techniques. The bone surrounding the retromolar triangle is heavier as compared to cortical plate over triangle & cortical plate is more cancellous. [25] During routine anesthetic, surgical and implantation procedure of mandible, its cancellous nature always kept in mind to prevent damage of neurovascular bundles in RMF. Sr. No. Population Author (year of study) No. of mandible studied Incidence (%) 1. Argentine aborigines Schejtman et al. [5] (1967) 18 13 (72%) 2. Eskimos Ossenberg [14] (1987) 485 40(8.2%) 3. American Sawyer and Kiely [12] (1991) 234 18(7.7%) 4. Japanese Kodera and Hashimoto [10] (1991) 41 8 (20%) 5. Caucasian (n=226) Afro-American (n=249) Pyle et al. [13] (1999) 475 37 (7.8%) 6. Argentinean Lagrana et al. [11] (2006) 50 9 (18%) 7. Turkish Bilecenoglu and Tuncer [9] (2006) 40 10 (25%) 8. Brazilian Suazo et al. [15] (2008) 294 38 (12.9%) 9. Swiss Von Arx et al. [8] (2011) 121 31 (25.6%) 10. Japanese Kawai et al. [6] (2012) 46 24 (52%) 11. Brazilian Rossi et al. [7] (2012) 222 59 (26.6%) 12. Turkish Orphan et al. [26] (2013) 126 14 (11.1%) 13. Korean Park MK et al. [4] (2014) 154 144 (93.5%) 14. Indian Narayana et al. [18] (2002) 242 53 (21.9%) Priya et al. [19] (1999) 475 37 (7.8%) Athavale et al. [16] (2013) 71 10 (14.1%) Gupta et al. [17] (2013) 50 9 (18%) 15. Indian OUR STUDY (2014) 224 33(14.7%) Table 4: Incidence of retromolar foramen and canal in different population studied by different authors
DOI: 10.14260/jemds/2014/3747 ORIGINAL ARTICLE J of Evolution of Med and Dent Sci/ eISSN- 2278-4802, pISSN- 2278-4748/ Vol. 3/ Issue 58/Nov 03, 2014 Page 13148 CONCLUSION: In this study, we report the incidence of retromolar foramen and its distance from the posterior border of 3rd molar socket, anterior border of the ramus, and lingula in Indian population, it is helpful in better understanding of clinical and surgical practice in this region. There is still possibility to study of this canal in living subjects by introducing the dye into the inferior alveolar artery. This may provide more information about this canal. It remains unknown, how the retromolar canal develops in the mandible, so there is need of further studies on large population across the world to understand its origin and evolutionary importance. REFERENCES: 1. Patil S, Matsuda Y, Nakajima K, Araki K, Okano T. Retromolar canals as observed on cone-beam computed tomography: Their incidence, course, and characteristics. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013; 115: 692-699. 2. Susan Standring, “Infratemporal and pterygopalatine fossae and temporomandibular joint” in Grays Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practices, S. Standring, H. Ellis, J. C. Healy, D. Jhonson and A. Williams, Eds., Churchill Livingtone, New York, NY, USA, 40th ed, 2008. pp. 532. 3. Naitoh M, Hiraiwa Y, Aimiya H, Ariji E. Observation of bifid mandibular canal using cone-beam computerized tomography. Int J Oral Maxillofacial Implants. 2009; 24: 155-159.

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