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by the type of cell from where they start. Cancerous ovarian tumors start from three common cell types: surface epithelium, germ cells, and stromal cells (NOCC, 2018). In general, cancer begins when a cell develops errors (mutations) in its DNA. The mutations tell the cell to grow and multiply quickly, creating a mass (tumor) of abnormal cells. The abnormal cells continue living when healthy cells would die. They can invade nearby tissues and break off from an initial tumor to spread elsewhere in the body (NOCC, 2018).Similarities and DifferencesOverall, testicular cancer is one of the most treatable and curable cancers that usually affects young and middle-aged men, and accounts for about 1% of all male cancers (Huether & McCance, 2017). In contrast, malignant tumors of the female reproductive system are common and is the leading cause of
mortality in developed countries (Huether & McCance, 2017). The risk factors in testicular cancer vary differently from ovarian cancer. Testicular cancer has risk factors associated that include: HIV/AIDS, history of cryptorchidism, abnormal testicular development, klinefelter syndrome, and history of testicular cancer. Ovarian cancer risk factors include: advancing age, genetic factors, family history, overweight and obesity, height, reproductive factors, menopausal therapy, previous cancer, smoking, ionizing radiation, diabetes, endometriosis, etc. (Huether & McCance, 2017).