An external object or event that motivates behavior

Info icon This preview shows pages 40–44. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
An external object or event that motivates behavior Theories of Motivation Instinct Theory Instincts – inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically determined Drive-reduction theory A psychological need creates a drive to satisfy that need Homeostasis – body’s tendency to maintain a steady internal state Optimal Arousal Model Humans are motivated to achieve and maintain an optimal level of arousal Hierarchical Theory Masiou’s hierarchy of needs Needs range from the most basic physiological necessities to the higher needs for  growth and fulfillment Physiological needs   safety needs   love and belongingness   esteem   self  actualization Hunger Physiology of Hunger Hunger pangs Stomach growls after about 2 hrs since eating Hypothalamus Important in monitoring food intake Set point – level of weight that the body strives to maintain Psychology of Hunger  Memory – when we eat Environment factors
Image of page 40

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Stress   cravings Learned preferences   sweet and salty things Situational factors People tend to eat more when with others Portion size Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa Refusal to eat and fear of being overweight 10% of people starve themselves (mostly women) Bulimia nervosa Binge on food then throw it up Can cause heart and dental problems Binge-eating disorder Binge-eat and then don’t throw up Causes: Biological   chemical imbalance Social pressure  Obesity defined as having a BMI of 30 or more Health risks   high BP and diabetes Social effects how you feel about yourself and how others see you Factors: Genetics – likely to look like biological parents
Image of page 41
Environment Sleep deprivation Social influence Activity level Sex Physiology of Sex Sexual response cycle Excitement in males (erection) and females (lubrication) Plateau Everything increase Women tend to stay here longer Orgasm Muscle contractions all over Same feeling in males and females Resolution Gradual return to arousal phase Refractory period in males Women able to have multiple orgasms Psychology of Sex External Stimuli Ex. porn, romance novels, toys, etc. Imagined Stimuli Our imagination affects our arousal Need to Belong
Image of page 42

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Aids in survival Wanting to belong Acting to increase social acceptance Ex. class reunions Maintaining relationships Ostracism Social exclusions, etc. More likely to commit suicide Emotion Our body’s adaptive response to stimuli Types of Emotions Basic emotions Includes: anger, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust Self-conscious emotions Includes: guilt, shame, humiliation, embarrassment, pride Emotion Consist of: Physiological arousal Overt behaviors Increasingly pale due to fear Subjective feelings What makes one person angry might not affect another.
Image of page 43
Image of page 44
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern