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rites of passage ritual ceremonies intended to mark the transition from one phase of life to another.rituals
stylized and usually repetitive acts that take place at a set time and location. They almost always involve the use of symbolic objects, words, and actions. For example, going to church on Sunday is a common religious ritual for Christians around the world.role the part a society expects an individual to play in a given status(e.g., child, wife, mother, aunt, grandmother). Social group membership gives us a set of role tags to allow people to know what to expect from each other.Back to Top- S -Sapir-Whorf hypothesis the early 20th century idea of Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf that language predetermines what we see in the world around us. In other words, language acts like a polarizing lens on a camera infiltering reality--we see the real world only in the terms and categories of our language. This hypothesis was objectively tested by anthropologists in the 1960's. That research indicated that Sapir and Whorf went too far. It is now clear that the terminology used by a culture primarily reflects that culture's interests and concerns. All normal humans share similar sense perceptions due to the fact that their sense organs are essentially the same. Therefore, they can understand and perceive the categories of reality of another culture, if they are explained.scientific methodthe method of learning what is unknown in the natural world by formulating a hypothesisto explain observable or measurable facts and then collecting data through experiments and further observation to answer research questions based on the hypothesis. If the results of the tests support the hypothesis, it may become a theory. If the tests do not support the hypothesis, new hypotheses are developed and tested. The scientific methodis the objective method by which old assumptions are challenged and scientific knowledge grows.secular relating to worldly rather than religious things.
shaman a person who is not part of an organized religion and is in direct contact with the spirit world, usually through a trance state. A shaman has spirit helpers at his or her command to carry out curing, divining, and bewitching. Shamanistic power is acquired individually, usually in physical and/or mental solitude and isolation from other humans. Spirits or some other supernatural entities are revealed to the shaman and he or she learns how to control them. Training by older shamans usually occurs to help the apprentice shaman understand and use his or her powers.sexismdiscrimination based on gender. An example of sexism is excluding people from promotion to executive positions in a corporation due to their gender.shifting agriculture the horticultural practice of shifting from one field to another when crop production dropsdue to the inevitable depletion of soil nutrients. Shifting agriculture is also referred to as"swidden cultivation" . See slash and burn.