The poles increased predation rate from killer whales

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the poles, increased predation rate from killer whales, increased risks from disease and parasites, greater exposure to pollutants, increased human traffic and development in the regions.-Effects of loss of sea ice on humans:oLoss of other species relied on for huntingoCoastal erosionoFishing industryoShippingoOil and gas industryFrom Lecture 14 - Formation of glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets-What is land ice and where is it found-Ice that forms above sea-level on solid ground(usually bedrock)-Includes glaciers, ice caps and large ice sheets(Greenland and Antarctic)-Land ice can end up floating in or on the ocean e.g. ice shelves and ice bergs.-Importance of land ice to climate and society (albedo, water resources, sea level)-Melting of land ice directly affects sea level (unlike sea ice), and a freshening of oceans in Polar Regions which may affect thermohaline circulation.-Presence of large ice sheets and ice cover over 10% of the Earth’s surface, even in summer, increases Earth’s albedo
-Glaciers produce water runoff during the dry season that are vital for drinking water, irrigation and industry-Steps of how a glacier/ice sheet formed-1.more snow accumulates each winter than melts each summer: snow depth gradually increases-2.pressure recrystallizes deep snow into denser ice with less air space-3.Eventually ice and snow become so thick that the pull of gravity causes the frozen mass to move-glacier is formed!!!!-Definition of a glacier and how they are classified based on shape and base temperature-A permanent body of ice, consisting largely of recrystallized snow, that shows evidence of slow down slope or outward movement due to its own weight; classified based on shape and base temperature-Alpine glaciers glaciers in mountains that flow down valleysoCirque glaciers occupies a bowl-shaped depressionoValley glaciers when a cirque expands out and flows downward into a valleyoTidewater glaciers when a valley glacier reaches the seaoIce caps miniature ice sheets covering <50,000 km2, form in relatively flat but high elevation areas. Ice flows away from the highest point towards the edge, often via glaciers-Continental glaciers: Characteristics of and how to identifyoIce sheets only found in Antarctica and Greenland today, continental sized masses of ice covering >50,000km2, also extremely thick covering almost all land featuresoIce shelves only found around Greenland and Antarctica today, occur when ice sheets extend over the sea and float on water,-Base temperature: Characteristics ofoTemperate glaciers where atmospheric temp. high enough for the glacial ice to be at or near its melting temp.oPolar glaciers where atmospheric temp. are so low all year that the glacial ice stays well below its melting temp. -What types of climate zones will the different glacier types be found in and what factors will affect them e.g. air temperature, ocean temperature, snowfall etc.-IcebergsoWhat are they Pieces of land ice that enter the ocean from ice shelves and tidewater glaciers and become free-floatingo

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