38 one hundred days reforms 1898 political reforms

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38. One Hundred days Reforms 1898 Political Reforms including free speech/press/submission of imperial memorials. Emperor Guangxu improved infrastructure, western-style military, patent and copyright laws. Government support of entrepreneurial enterprises was strengthened although it was against the Confucius ideology. Education reforms including China’s first university, women’s education, abolition of the literary essay in the civil service exam was established. But, it only lasted for 100 days because Empress Dowager Cixi came out of retirement. 39. Kang Youwei He was the leader of the 100 days Reform and founder of the Anti-Foot Binding society. He believed that women should participate in the military as part of nation-building. He also attacked the institution of marriage claiming it produces the institution of the family, claiming it is the root of evil because it all comes down to what is best for the patriarch of the family. Hence, he believed “society” as a huge collective whole should raise children. Also he created the Anti-Foot-Binding society because it deprived China of contributors, as women could be a part of the army if they weren’t bound. 40. Views regarding marriage Kang rejected the social institution of marriage. He believed marriage was the most oppressive force on women and that it denies them the little freedom they had in traditional China. Instead, he suggested free contractual relations. Man and woman sigh a contract to be together for a period of time and after the time expires they are free to renew it or pursue other people. 41. Liang Qichao “Nationalism and women’s emancipation go had in hand.” Half the population should not be dependent/ non-productive. Founded China’s first school for girls in 1898. 42. Tan Sitong “Sexual liberation.” He tried to demystify feminine chastity/virtue. He said, “Reforms have necessitated the spilling of blood in every country. Let it begin with me.” And Empress Dowager Cixi executed him in 1898. His theories on sexual liberation say there is no such thing as chastity or a women’s sense of honor. Sex is just sex. There was a double standard where men are not expected to be chaste or faithful but women are. 43. Emperor Guangxu He had been overshadowed by his aunt, Empress Dowager Cixi, who was the de facto ruler and the greatest obstacle to reform. He instituted the 100 days Reform when she went into semi-retirement when he was 24 yers old. 44. Empress Dowager Cixi She is Empress of China, who continued the oppression of women by repealing an act that would have allowed women to be educated. She was China’s greatest obstacle to reform during this period. Put her nephew the emperor under house arrest, executed 6 reformers including Tan Sitong. She used money intended for China’s first modern navy to build a useless marble boat instead.

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