Sampling Behaviour with Tasks o Alternative to behaviours that cant be observed

Sampling behaviour with tasks o alternative to

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Sampling Behaviour with Tasks o Alternative to behaviours that can’t be observed directly o Create tasks that seem to sample behaviours of interest E.g. digit span for memory – give sequence of numbers and gradually increase Self-Reports
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o Children’s answers to questions about the topic of interest. o Retrospective reports are subject to response or memory bias and forgetfulness Physiological Measures o Heart rate portrays degree of attention; it slows down when paying attention o Cortisol levels in saliva, measure stress o Brain activity can be associated with reasoning, memory, emotions, etc. Evaluating Measures o Validity shows measurement measures what it is supposed to measure o Construct validity – test measures the theoretical construct it is supposed to measure o Concurrent validity – when two forms of measurements correspond and validate each other Representative Sampling o Valid measurements also depend on this o Broad groups of subjects are being sampled and have to be accurately represented Correlational Research o Relation between variables as they exist naturally Establish a correlational coefficient btw -1 and 1 0 – no correlation 1 – strong positive correlation -1 – strong negative correlation, i.e. inverse relationship o Statistical research and survey studies Usually one-on-one research instead of survey forms Kids are more fond of truth-telling than adults Expensive o Parent, teacher and peer reports E.g. personality surveys (parents may lie about kids’ conscientiousness) E.g. popularity level o Retrospective reports Problem: hard to get info from subject about past due to memory loss and bias Solution: prospective studies (follow subject from young to older ages) E.g. studies show that feminine boys correlate with gay men o Can’t make causal statements Need independent variables that can be manipulated Experimental Research o Dependent and independent variables have to be defined Independent variable is independent of subject o Random assignment – causation Ensures even study groups You can’t randomly assign age, parenting style, social environment on case studies o Inferential statistics allows conclusions to be drawn o Null hypothesis states that nothing the experimenter did had an effect on results There has to be a 95% chance that results are gotten from experimental manipulation. i.e. 0.05 probability that chance was involved o Types of Experiments
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True lab experiments – random assignment Field experiments research manipulates I.V. in a natural setting for proper conclusions drawbacks: loss of control for researcher and unaccounted variables Quasi experiments – random assignments not possible on at least 1 variable.
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