Comorbidities•70% with ASD have 1+; 40% have 2+ other diagnoses•Intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder)•Language disorder•ADHD•Developmental coordination disorder•Anxiety disorders•Depression•Specific learning disability
Intellectual Features•IQ varies•70% are estimated to have co-occurring ID•No distinctive IQ profile•Splinter skills (25%)•Autistic savants (5%)•Typically Information is not used to enhance everyday living•Theory of Mind: capacity to mindread/awareness of mental states in themselves and others•Executive functioning deficits•Weak central coherence (parts instead of whole)
Prevalence and Developmental Course•Prevalence•1-2% of population•Occurs in all social classes and cultures•Many causes for the apparent dramatic increase have been proposed… but none scientifically substantiated•4-5 times more common in boys•when girls are affected they tend to have more severe intellectual impairments•bias in diagnosis/in the absence of co-occurring intellectual or behavioural deficits, girls may be better able to cope with same level of ASD symptoms•Clinical manifestations are similar, but girls are better at pretend play
Prevalence and Developmental Course•Developmental Course•Most often identified around age 2 (12 to 24 months)•Studies show between 6-12 months of age, infants failed to gain new social skills or showed a loss of previously acquired skills•Recent findings shows that a gradual decline in eye contact over the first six months may precede the gradual loss of specific social skills that occurs between 6-12 months•Children with ASD develop along different pathways:•Some show abnormal behaviour soon after birth•25% or more show normal develop for first year or longer and then regressions•Others show improvement over time. •Usually a chronic and lifelong condition•Most show gradual improvement of symptoms with age, but continue to display social impairments compared to others•IQ and language development are the strongest predictors of adult outcomes
Causes•Genetic Influences•Heritability•Genetic disorders•Brain abnormalities•Structural abnormalities•Functional abnormalities•Biochemical
Causes•ASD is a biologically based neurodevelopmental disorder with multiple causes involving genetic and environmental risk factors.
Problems in Early Development•
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- Winter '17
- Paula Cerveny
- early infantile autism