Student-centred consultative teaching style where teachers work with students to build their thinking skills . Student-centred experiential learning where theory and practice are combined . Problem-based learning strategies . Use of questioning techniques to analyse, synthesise and evaluate information . Debate-based approach where debating procedures and formats are adapted to the curriculum . Consulting projects where students analyse data to solve problems . Active learning strategies to encourage critical thinking . Collaborative learning environments have a positive in ﬂ uence in developing critical thinking . Students ’ ethnocultural origin plays an important role Alavi, Wheeler, and Valacich 1995 ; Borg and Stranahan 2010 ; Brook and Milner 2014 ; Eggers, Lovelace, and Kraft 2017 ; Lee et al. 2016 ; Levant, Coulmont, and Sandu 2016 ; Prince 2004 5. Methods for critical thinking assessment . Empirically validated instruments to measure the ability to think critically (e.g. California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory) . Bloom ’ s Taxonomy as a framework . Student perception surveys Butler et al. 2012 ; Cloete 2018 ; D ’ Alessio, Avolio, and Charles 2020 ; Dwyer, Hogan, and Stewart 2014 ; Facione 1990 ; Halpern 1998 ; Nentl and Zietlow 2008 ; Reeves 1990 ; Seldomridge and Walsh 2006 ; Watson and Glaser 1994 ; Wilkin 2017 6. Current emphasis of studies on critical thinking in business education . Developing critical thinking as a skill . Application of critical thinking in various business fi elds Alavi, Wheeler, and Valacich 1995 ; Ayad 2010 ; Bonk and Smith 1998 ; Casey and Goldman 2010 ; Christensen, Cote, and Latham 2016 ; Deale 2016 ; Ermasova, Wagner, and ( Continued ) STUDIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION 9
The dilemma is that while there is general consensus that critical thinking can be e ff ectively taught and learnt, how to do this is generally unclear. A number of approaches have been suggested but the literature has yet to fi nd evidence of their e ff ectiveness. For example, some believe that it should be included in problem-based learning (Zabit 2010 ) or debate based learning activities. Others see critical thinking as an important component in design thinking (Glen, Sucio, and Baughn 2014 ; Johansson-Sköldberg, Woodilla, and Çetinkaya 2013 ) or experiential learning (Lamb 2015 ). The following section details Part 2 of the analysis. NVivo was used to analyse the 787 articles. We extend the analysis in Part 1 to pay particular atten- tion to the underlying theoretical foundations, methods or approaches used, disciplinary contexts, and associated skills of most interest to researchers. Theoretical foundations There were 160 references to ‘ theory ’ as a code or theme. Closer inspection reveals the theories most used by researchers of critical thinking in business education. Learning theory (12 references) was used as a theoretical foundation the most, followed by social theory and critical theory (10 each). Dis- cipline-based theories such as marketing, ethics, management, game and critical race theories follow.
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