What leads children to be rejected? d. Aggression i. Types of aggression 1. Hostile 2. Instrumental 3. Relational ii. Gender patterns of aggression iii. Effects of bullying 3. Electronic Media a. Television i. Effects of violent/prosocial TV shows ii. Effects of TV on attention, creativity, etc. b. Computers i. Effects of video games (violent, spatial, or otherwise) ii. Social networking 4. Understanding Others a. Descriptions of others i. Young children vs. middle childhood b. Selman’s stages of perspective taking (don’t need to memorize names of stages, but should understand the overall progression) c. Prejudice i. Young children vs. older children ii. Reducing prejudice Chapter 8 - Physical & Cognitive Development in Adolescence 1. Physical Development – Puberty a. Non-sexual growth i. Height/Weight changes ii. Fat/Muscle changes iii. Brain growth 1. Limbic system vs. frontal areas iv. Gender differences b. Sexual Maturation i. Primary vs. secondary sexual characteristics ii. Mechanisms of maturation 1. Pituitary gland 2. Genetic influence on timing of puberty 3. Environmental influences
c. Psychological impact of puberty i. Body image 1. Gender differences ii. Moodiness iii. Rate of maturation 1. Risks of an early maturer vs. late maturer 2. Physical Development – Health a. Nutrition i. General nutritional needs ii. Obesity 1. Risk factors iii. Anorexia 1. Symptoms, risk factors iv. Bulimia 1. Symptoms, risk ractors b. Physical Fitness i. Sports c. Threats to well-being i. Gender/ethnic differences in causes of death 3. Cognitive Development – Information Processing a. Working-memory/Processing speed b. Content knowledge i. Effect on memory c. Strategies & metacognitive skill d. Problem-solving & Reasoning i. Heuristics vs. analytical reasoning ii. Finding weaknesses/flaws in reasoning iii. Belief bias/perserverance 4. Cognitive Development – Morality a. Moral dilemmas b. Kohlberg’s stages i. Level 1: reward & punishment 1. Stage 1 – obedience 2. Stage 2 – reciprocity ii. Level 2: social norms 1. Stage 3: what will others think 2. Stage 4: social order iii. Level 3: moral codes 1.
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