• No clear strategy – wanted to put down rebellion & restore monarchy but not know how to accomplish goal or deal hostile population; no central political center to capture & Continental Congress place to place. • Captured ports Charleston, Boston, NY, Newport, Philadelphia but not significant loss Americans since 95% lived countryside; task not destroy countryside but restore old government; large land army & hundreds supply ships capture 13 distinct entities. • Strategy divide & conquer – first focus NY where most Loyalists & geographic advantage Hudson River isolate New England & hoped NJ & PA fall in line since some Loyalists – then take VA & Carolinas. Battles of Quebec & Montreal Revolutionary War: • Late 1775 US expedition goal to capture British Montreal & Quebec before British reinforcement; not just reaction British invasion MA but strategic goals – sites battles French & Indian War. • NY Continentals commanded by General Richard Montgomery took Montreal 1775; hoped French Canadians join Patriots. • Montgomery & Benedict Arnold advanced Quebec – mountains, smallpox, inadequate supplies many men died & failed take city British- retreating NY. Main Action of War – New York: • 1776 crucial to England – 45K British troops & Hessian mercenaries S. of NY City under General Howe; Continental Army under General George Washington army 20 K marched south from MA. • Battle Long Island late August 1776 where British Red Coats against inexperienced Continental Army & causalities but Washington held Manhattan (British town) & took ammunition. • Howe captured Forts Washington & Lee & Washington’s troops retreated to PA & NJ & Howe followed but not attack Philadelphia. Battles in New Jersey: 17
• December 25, 1776 storm sleet - Washington moved large army across DE River capturing German soldiers Trenton. • Victory boosted low morale soldiers; inspired Patriots other colonies – new recruits; showed Americans defeat British – Washington Crossing the Delaware painting positive light. • Washington took the offensive, capturing supplies attack British at Princeton 1777; settled troops winter at Morristown N. NJ – morale increased. A Decisive Victory – Battle of Saratoga: • Ft. Stanwix deprived British hopes of taking Hudson Valley; Burgoyne camped at Saratoga village; American troops under Horatio Gates moved 7K Continental Soldiers.
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