Modern European History Final Study Guide

Giuseppe mazzini publicist led young italy to drive

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- Giuseppe Mazzini : publicist: led Young Italy – to drive Austria out of Italy; involved in the Roman republic - Camillo Cavour : statesman; minister of Sardinia; entered Italian troops into a conflict (Cremian war); used France to engineer a war with Austria in 1859 – War of Independence was able to get Lombardy & most of the papa states – a lot of the area was owned by the Pope Otto von Bismarck : a major political leader; ran Prussia from 1862 & Germany as chancellor; in 1862, he made Blood & Iron speech Blood and Iron : wanted to take away power that the Parliament was gaining – in doing so, he fulfilled the goals better than they did; he ignored the law when it suited him, however; unification of German territories – given by Otto von Bismarck Franco-Prussian War : 1871; final act; second French empire and Prussia (won) Nationalism in the Austrian Empire : lots of different ethnic groups in Austria – created turmoil & instability Imperialism : Technology allowed imperialism to happen: Navigation; steamship made the heart of Africa accessible (to be able to go against river currents); guns; telegraphs (better communication); railroad; extending a country’s power and influence through diplomacy or military force Science & Technology and Imperialism Henry Morton Stanley : one of the more famous travel-writers (1841-1904): passed himself as American, even though he’s Welsh; not even his real name; fought the American Civil War on both sides (wtf); New York Herald got him to go to Africa to have him find Dr. Livingston Stanley found him Leopold II : really wanted the money frustrated by constitutional monarchy; decided to act on his own; used Stanley to help lay claim on Congo (Africa); tried to improve the lives of the native inhabitants Congo : (Africa) Leopold II; Belgium
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Scramble for Africa : process of invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers during New Imperialism period; military and economic dominance World War I : global war centralized in Europe; Allies vs. Central Powers (1914- 1918) Literary War Three Emperors League : (1873-1878) Treaty between the empires of: 1. Austria 2. Russia 3. Germany By Otto von Bismarck; to resurrect the Holy Alliance Triple Alliance : Bismarck didn’t want to keep expanding borders but wanted peace to keep Germany up but France isolated (who wanted revenge); done so with a series of treaties; Germany wanted to make sure that Russia & France were not allies; military alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy Reinsurance Treaty : Otto von Bismarck attempted to continue to ally with Russia after Three Emperors League broke down Triple Entente : (France isolated until 1890); alliance between France, Britain & Russia; forgot to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia in 1894, France & Russia became allies World War I technology : trench warfare, artillery, poison gas, railways, air warfare, tanks, submarines, flamethrowers Trench Warfare : flamethrower, grenades, machine guns, poison gas, tank Zimmermann telegram : proposal from German Empire to Mexico to make war against the US; coded telegram by Zimmermann; Mexico was promised
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