Intene program dont know if early intervention or

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intene program don’t know if early intervention or intensity led to improvement -similar returns were obtained for other early intervention programs School and Skills Gaps -families, not schools, are the major sources of inequality in student performance -gaps in test scores across SE groups are stable by age, suggesting that later schooling and variations in schooling quality have little effect in reducing or widening the gaps that appear before students enter school -majority of the gap in math test scores at age 12 appears at the age of school enrollment -smaller classes raise the adult earnings of students but the earnings gains received by students do not offset the costs of hiring additional teachers
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Second Chance Programs -later compensation for deficient early family environments is very costly -serious trade-off between equity and efficiency for adolescent and young adult skill policies but no such trade-off for policies targeted toward disadvantaged young children -economic return from early interventions is high and return from later interventions is lower Conclusions -early interventions targeted toward disadvantaged children have much higher returns than later interventions i.e. reduced pupil teacher ratios, public job training, etc. -society overinvests in remedial skill investments and underinvests in early ages -early investments must be followed by later investments if maximum value is to be realized LECTURE 8: Status, Social Capital and Child Development July 9, 2012 -Edward Hopper: -an American painter trained in Paris, who began depicting simple urban scenes -his work was about alone-ness and urban alienation -in his work, there is a sense that although people are in closer proximity to one another in cities, ironically, they are lonelier because of it -his work was realistic was a member of the Ashcan School - “urban alienation” -urban alienation and social capital: -Hopper was concerned with the psychological relationship between people and places, esp. within urban American cities -his works suggests an uneasy relationship with place and a diminished relationship with people -importantly, he shows us places that were traditionally for meeting people, now producing uneasy solitude -lack of groups: -notably there is a lack of the group as subject -Hopper is observing that we no longer congregate, that we tend to pair off, if at all for social interaction -facial expressions are neutral or suggestive of sadness -there is something missing from urban life - Putnam’s Model of Social Capital: -psychological aspects of social capital: -structural vs. cognitive conceptualization -structural: embedded within community structures such as organizations -cognitive: internalized values and norms that help shape behaviour -structural vs. cognitive social capital:
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-structural capital: -civic bodies -law enforcement -clubs and organizations -meeting places -regular events -cognitive capital -values -morals -ethical code -altruism -personal conduct -where is social capital?:
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