Railed vehicles move with much less friction than rubber tires on paved roads

Railed vehicles move with much less friction than

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Railed vehicles move with much less friction than rubber tires on paved roads, making trains more energy efficient. The advantages and disadvantages are a) advantages rail is fast mode of transportation, suitable for long distances, economical medium of transportation, transport of heavy goods and energy efficient, b) rail disadvantages requires special infrastructure, chances of accidents are high, require high cost and not flexible mode of transportation.
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Air transport is a fixed wing aircraft, commonly called airplane, is a heavier than aircraft where movement of the air in relation to the wings is use to generate lift. The aircraft is the second fastest method of transport, after the rocket. The “Air” advantages and disadvantages; a) advantages by air; quick mean of transportation, suitable for long distances and suitable for transport heavy goods, and b) disadvantages are; not suitable for short distances, high cost, require special infrastructure, risky in a bad weather condition, high repair and maintenance cost. Water transport is the process of transport a watercraft, such as a barge, boat, ship or sailboat, over a body of water, such sea, ocean, lake, canal and river. The “Water” advantages and disadvantages are a) Water play a major role in the international trade, effective method of transporting large quantities of non- perishable goods, and less costly than air transportation, and b) disadvantages can cause accident, water pollution, and creating danger for marine life, effected by weather conditions, high fuel consumption, and not flexible (Perreault, Cannon, and McCarthy, 2009). Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe. Most commonly, liquid and gases are sent, but pneumatic tubes that transport solid capsules using compressed air have also been used. The “Pipeline” transport advantages and disadvantages are: a) pipeline advantages lowest cost of transportation, safety, reliability and minimum disruption of multi-product handling, and flexibility, and b) pipelines can be the target of vandalism, sabotage, or even terrorist attacks. In war, pipelines are often the target of military attacks, as destruction of pipelines can seriously disrupt enemy logistics (Perreault, Cannon, and McCarthy, 2009). The best alternative should provide the level of service (for example, speed and dependability) required at as low a cost as possible. Exhibit 1-12 below shows that different modes of transportation have different strengths and weaknesses. 4) Costs In selecting a Physical Distribution system, the total cost approach involves evaluating each possible PD system and identifying all of the costs of each alternative. This approach uses the tools of cost accounting and economics. Costs that otherwise might be ignored like inventory carrying costs are considered. The possible costs of lost sales due to a lower
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customer service level may also be considered. The following example clarifies why the total cost approach is important. The cost of shipping a ton of ice cream products by train averaged less than half the cost of airfreight
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