policy development is that of incremental adjustments that accommodate stakeholders, yet, both result in collaboratively created outcomes. An example of these difering contexts can be seen in the way prototyping takes place in design and policy contexts. When presented with this tool, legislators closely associated it with the use of pilot studies that are initiated by legislators as a means to test a policy idea. Prototyping or piloting a policy is valued as a way to bring unforeseen issues to light prior to full adoption of a bill and as a way test the efficacy of a potential bill. In design, the value of prototyping comes from quick feedback loops, iteration, and refinement. There are a number of impediments in the policy process that cause the use of this tool to take a diferent course: When pilot studies are introduced to the legislature they need bill approval. In this situation, one legislator would need to successfully introduce a bill for a pilot study and then reintroduce the bill as a full-scale policy the following legislative session or after the study period is complete. This process is too slow when legislatorsʼ concerns lie within one singular session. A pilot can lose support if: another issue takes prominence; if the sponsor leaves; if money dwindles; or if an idea does not fit well with the current legislatures concerns. Moreover, long-term projects are difficult to sponsor when legislators are motivated by quick results that contribute to their reelection. This example shows that the difering operating paradigms of design and policy are tied to the same need for testing out an idea and incorporating feedback into a future iteration, yet two distinct ways have emerged from diferent manifestations of complexity. Problem Definition Just as our professional contexts shape the landscape of complexity, so do they dispose the problems that we face to the constraints, opportunities, and afectations of each field. That is, problems are identified and defined uniquely to the contexts in which they arise. Problems in the client-based, business-driven professional model of the design world are shaped somewhere in between the client, customer and designer. In contrast, the body of individuals who actively appeal to policy makers characterizes the public context of the policy world: they compete for a voice in the policy process and for representation in the policy outcome. Problems are efectively shaped by the voices represented and heard in this process. The significance of how problems are defined is evident in the manifestations of complexity, the management strategies of our tools and the outcomes that result. Problem definition is widely recognized as a contributor to the successes and failures in policy formulation and carries a long-standing tradition in policy discourse. In part, this discussion revolved around the notion that issues and problems are shaped by the way people individually or socially define them and result in policies that are inherently
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 181 pages?
- Winter '16
- Jeff Hannan
- Linear Regression, ........., Complex system, Nonlinear system, K. Chakka