amino acid at one end RNA at other end Name tRNA rRNA Ribosomes workbench to

Amino acid at one end rna at other end name trna rrna

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• amino acid at one end • RNA at other end • Name? tRNA rRNA Ribosomes – workbench to synthesize proteins 3 binding sites, A, E and P – A (amino acid) receives new tRNA (MUST be correct one) – P (polypeptide) holds growing peptide chain – E (exit) is exit site for old tRNA – Process continues until no tRNA available (stop codon), then growing peptide released How do we know which codons on mRNA will match with which amino acids? Genetic Code Cq: What amino acids does this mRNA fragment encode? 5’ AGUGUCCAA 3’ Which end start with? Start at 5’ end Answer: serine-valine-glutamine. CQ: The strand below is the template strand of DNA. Transcribe and translate it. Wil have to do this on exam!!!! 3’ GACATGTGA 5’ Answer: 5’ CUGUACACU 3’
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Leucine.-tryosine-threonine. 10/21 Sum up transcription and translation converting DNA code into a protein DNA Contains the Genetic Code that Governs Cellular Functions • DNA itself does nothing except serve as the blueprint for protein synthesis • DNA controls development and maintenance of organisms through DNA-dependent protein synthesis •Dog ma: one gene  one protein (or polypeptide or RNA) Big pic So we go from DNA through transcription to mRNA and we translate the mRNA into a polypeptide DNA is inside the nucleus, it gets opened up, and then starts transcribing that specific part, during transcription, that gene is then processed by adding that 3’ primed poly-a tail to the 5’g cap, cutiing out introns putting the exons back together, now leaves nucleaus, ribosome comes and grabs it and bind to it, the ribosme is going to bring tRNA together which it going to make the right amino acid, going to have the right anticodon on tRNA which is going to match the right codeon of mRNA, and we are going to put those amino acids together into a polypeptide or protein happens outside the nucleus. Transcription in the nucleus translation outside the nucleus. Use chart for mRNA code on protein is being coded for. What amino acids does this mRNA fragment encode? 5’ GCUAAGGUA 3’ Answer: 3. alanine-lysine-valine What direction do we translate in? 5’ to 3’ on mRNA we are not making nucleotides. What direction do we make Mrna? 3’ to 5’ The strand below is the template strand of DNA. Transcribe and translate it. 3’ TACATAGTA 5’ Answer: 5’ AUGUAUCAU 3’ methionine-tyrosine-histidine
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So lets talk about how translation really starts. Translation Initiation • Differs in eukaryotes and prokaryotes: – Eukaryotes: where do ribosomes bind? • 5’ G-Cap= what makes the ribosome recognize the mRNA, poly a tail allows it to leave nucleus – Prokaryotes, ribosomes bind to “ribosome binding site” (Shine Dalgarno site) which must be about 6- 10 bases upstream of AUG – In both, translation starts at AUG , start code on. First amino acid always made mythiniode, Translation Elongation Ribosomes move 5’  3’ on mRNA tRNA can enter A site only if: 1. it is “charged” 2. other factors present 3. its anticodon matches the codon on mRNA
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