2 1 2 t ke mv the higher temperature the higher

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2 1 2 T KE mv =< : The higher temperature the higher average kinetic energy! The higher temperature the faster molecules move in a substance! 3) There are three basic temperature scales: The Celsius temperature scale The Fahrenheit temperature scale, and The Absolute temperature scale (or the Kelvin scale). Note: You should know what these scales are and how they are related to each other. 4) What are the units to measure heat energy? 5) What is the specific heat? Definition: The specific heat capacity of any substance is defined as the quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a unit mass of the substance by 1 degree. 6). Three Laws of Thermodynamics First Law: Whenever heat flows into or out of a system, the gain or loss of thermal energy equals the amount of heat transferred. Second Law: Heat never spontaneously flows from a cold substance to a hot substance. 6
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Third Law: No system can reach absolute zero. 7) Main mechanisms of heat transfer are conduction, convection and absorption . Heat conduction occurs by means of loosely bound particles in materials, mainly electrons. Heat convection is the heat transfer via movements of fluid (liquids and gases). Radiation is heat transfer via electromagnetic waves (radiant energy). A substance can also absorb heat energy via these three processes. 8). All substances at any temperature above absolute zero continuously emit and absorb radiant energy! The average frequency (f) of radiant energy is proportional to the absolute temperature T of the emitter, i.e., f ~ T 9) Four states of matter: solid, liquid, gaseous, and plasma. 10) The pressure at sea level is equal to 1 atmosphere (atm) or 760 mmHg Note: The millimeter of mercury (symbol: mmHg ) is defined as the pressure exerted at the base of a column of mercury exactly 1 mm high. 11) During any phase transition , additional heat added to boiling water does not change its temperature because all heat goes to phase transition. 10. The Earth’s Atmosphere and Oceans 1) The present atmosphere likely developed from gases that escaped from the interior of the Earth during volcanic eruptions. 2) The Earth’s oceans likely evolved from condensation of water vapor from volcanic eruptions. 3) The process of photosynthesis is important because photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide and water to hydrocarbon and free oxygen. 4) The Earth’s atmosphere contains roughly (by molar content/volume) 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon, and 0.04% carbon dioxide. 5) Driving forces of air motion are winds which are caused by temperature difference, pressure difference, and surface friction. 6) The layers of the Earth’s atmosphere from bottom to top are troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and the exosphere . Troposphere is the lowest layer and the thinnest layer, where the Earth’s weather occurs. 7) Ozone layer (O 3 ) is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere, and it absorbs about 97% UV radiation from the sun. 7
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