FinalExamStudyGuide_Part2

# 2 1 2 t ke mv the higher temperature the higher

• Notes
• 7

This preview shows page 6 - 7 out of 7 pages.

2 1 2 T KE mv =< : The higher temperature the higher average kinetic energy! The higher temperature the faster molecules move in a substance! 3) There are three basic temperature scales: The Celsius temperature scale The Fahrenheit temperature scale, and The Absolute temperature scale (or the Kelvin scale). Note: You should know what these scales are and how they are related to each other. 4) What are the units to measure heat energy? 5) What is the specific heat? Definition: The specific heat capacity of any substance is defined as the quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a unit mass of the substance by 1 degree. 6). Three Laws of Thermodynamics First Law: Whenever heat flows into or out of a system, the gain or loss of thermal energy equals the amount of heat transferred. Second Law: Heat never spontaneously flows from a cold substance to a hot substance. 6

Subscribe to view the full document.

Third Law: No system can reach absolute zero. 7) Main mechanisms of heat transfer are conduction, convection and absorption . Heat conduction occurs by means of loosely bound particles in materials, mainly electrons. Heat convection is the heat transfer via movements of fluid (liquids and gases). Radiation is heat transfer via electromagnetic waves (radiant energy). A substance can also absorb heat energy via these three processes. 8). All substances at any temperature above absolute zero continuously emit and absorb radiant energy! The average frequency (f) of radiant energy is proportional to the absolute temperature T of the emitter, i.e., f ~ T 9) Four states of matter: solid, liquid, gaseous, and plasma. 10) The pressure at sea level is equal to 1 atmosphere (atm) or 760 mmHg Note: The millimeter of mercury (symbol: mmHg ) is defined as the pressure exerted at the base of a column of mercury exactly 1 mm high. 11) During any phase transition , additional heat added to boiling water does not change its temperature because all heat goes to phase transition. 10. The Earth’s Atmosphere and Oceans 1) The present atmosphere likely developed from gases that escaped from the interior of the Earth during volcanic eruptions. 2) The Earth’s oceans likely evolved from condensation of water vapor from volcanic eruptions. 3) The process of photosynthesis is important because photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide and water to hydrocarbon and free oxygen. 4) The Earth’s atmosphere contains roughly (by molar content/volume) 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon, and 0.04% carbon dioxide. 5) Driving forces of air motion are winds which are caused by temperature difference, pressure difference, and surface friction. 6) The layers of the Earth’s atmosphere from bottom to top are troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and the exosphere . Troposphere is the lowest layer and the thinnest layer, where the Earth’s weather occurs. 7) Ozone layer (O 3 ) is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere, and it absorbs about 97% UV radiation from the sun. 7

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

###### "Before using Course Hero my grade was at 78%. By the end of the semester my grade was at 90%. I could not have done it without all the class material I found."
— Christopher R., University of Rhode Island '15, Course Hero Intern

### What students are saying

• As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

• I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

• The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern