The ovaries produce oocytes the female gametes in a process called oogenesis As

The ovaries produce oocytes the female gametes in a

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The ovaries produce oocytes, the female gametes, in a process called oogenesis. As with spermatogenesis, meiosis produces the haploid gamete (in this case, an ovum); however, it is completed only in an oocyte that has been penetrated by a sperm. In the ovary, an oocyte surrounded by supporting cells is called a follicle. In folliculogenesis, primordial follicles develop into primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles. Early tertiary follicles with their fluid-filled antrum will be stimulated by an increase in FSH, a gonadotropin produced by the anterior pituitary, to grow in the 28-day ovarian cycle. Supporting granulosa and theca cells in the growing follicles produce estrogens, until the level of estrogen in the bloodstream is high enough that it triggers negative feedback at the hypothalamus and pituitary. This results in a reduction of FSH and LH, and most tertiary follicles in the ovary undergo atresia (they die). One follicle, usually the one with the most FSH receptors, survives this period and is now called the dominant follicle. The dominant follicle produces more estrogen, triggering positive feedback and the LH surge that will induce ovulation. Following ovulation, the granulosa cells of the empty follicle luteinize and transform into the progesterone-producing corpus luteum. The ovulated oocyte with its surrounding granulosa cells is picked up by the infundibulum of the uterine tube, and beating cilia help to transport it through the tube toward the uterus. Fertilization occurs within the uterine tube, and the final stage of meiosis is completed.
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FINAL EXAM’s TOPICS PER CHAPTER (as outlined in lecture notes): Chapter 10 (parts 1 & 2): The Physiology of Skeletal Muscle Fibers (pgs. 411-427) 1. Skeletal Muscle Function (Sliding Filament Theory) a. Events at the Neuromuscular Junction b. Excitation-Contraction Coupling c. The Cross-Bridge Cycle 2. Skeletal Muscle Metabolism a. Mechanisms for ATP Production b. Muscle Fatigue and Oxygen Debt 3. Contraction of a Skeletal Muscle a. Motor Units b. Types of Contractions and Responses c. Muscle Tone 4. Factors Affecting the Force of Muscle Contraction 5. Factors Affecting the Velocity & Duration of Muscle Contraction Chapter 17: Hormonal Regulation (part 1) (pgs. 735-736, 738-742, 752-755, 760-762, 766-769) 1. Mechanisms of Hormone Action 2. Summary of the Major Hormones in the Human Body (see table 17.2 – read it on your own) 3. Endocrine Gland Stimuli 4. Regulation & Effects of the Adrenal Glands’ Hormones 5. Synthesis & Major Effects of Thyroid Hormones; Thyroid Disorders 6. Regulation of Blood Glucose Levels: The Role of Insulin; Diabetes Mellitus Chapters 17, 6, 18 & 25: Hormonal Regulation (part 2) & Chapter 27: Reproductive Physiology 1. Organs with secondary endocrine function (Ch. 17; pgs. 770-772) 2. Hormones that regulate osteoblasts & osteoclasts; calcium homeostasis; osteoporosis (Ch. 6; pgs. 243- 245) 3. Hormonal regulation of the number of circulating red blood cells (Ch. 18; pgs. 794-795 & Ch 25: pg. 1236) 4. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS; Ch. 25; pgs. 1232 & 1237) 5. Male Reproductive Physiology (Ch. 27) a.
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