over the last fifty odd years will show that the apologists for capitalism are

Over the last fifty odd years will show that the

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over the last fifty-odd years will show that the apologists for capitalism are spokesmen of a social system that is rapidly expiring. The fact that capitalism today is still around alongside socialism should warn us that the modes of production cannot simply be viewed as a ques- w tion of successive stages. Uneven development has always insured that~v^“-'--' < * societies have come into contact when they were at different levels—for' vV '*“\'\ example, one that was communal and one that was capitalist. J.' ri i When two societies of different sorts come into prolonged and effective contact, the rate and character of change taking place in both is seriously affected to the extent that entirely new patterns are created. Two general e c.L, u <. rules can be observed to apply in such cases. First, the weaker of the two societies (i.e., the one with less economic capacity) is bound to be ad- versely affected—and the bigger the gap between the two societies con- cerned the more detrimental are the consequences. For example, whenA European capitalism came into contact with the indigenous hunting socie- ties of America and the Caribbean, the latter were virtually exterminated. Second, assuming that the weaker society does survive, then ultimately it can resume its own independent development only if it proceeds to a level higher than that of the economy which had previously dominated it. The concrete instances of the operation of this second rule are found in the experience of the Soviet Union, China, and Korea. China and Korea were both at a stage approximating feudalism when they were colonized by the capitalist powers of Europe and Japan. Russia was never legally colonized, but while in the feudal stage and before its own indigenous capitalism could get very far, the Russian economy was subjugated by the more mature capitalism of Western Europe. In all three cases, it took a socialist revolution to break the domination of capitalism, and only the rapid tempo of socialist development could make amends for the period of subjugation when growth was misdirected and retarded. Indeed, as far as the two biggest socialist states are concerned (the Soviet Union and China), socialist development has already catapulted them beyond states such as Britain and France, which have been following the capitalist path for centuries. Up to the end of the 1950s (the point at which this study terminates),
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12 HOW EUROPE UNDERDEVELOPED AFRICA Russia, China, Korea, and certain nations in Eastern Europe were the only countries which had decisively broken with capitalism and imperial- west- itrin#. political, economic, military, and cultural'hege mony over ofoër~pärtS of the world which were initially at a lower level and therefore could flöt resist domination. Imperialism was in effect the extended capítàlîsn;ys- tem, which for many years embraced the whole world—one part being the exploiters and the other the exploited, one part being dominated and the other acting as overlords, one part making policy and the other being dependent.
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