■ Fifth Amendment: Rights of the accused. Outlines the right to due process of law and other legal protections. This amendment covers various rights of people accused of crimes. It also covers eminent domain, which prevents the government from taking over private property without just or fair compensation. ■ Sixth Amendment: Right to a fair trial. Guarantees the right to public and speedy trial by a jury in criminal cases. The accused also has other rights such as to call witnesses and to be represented by an attorney. ■ Seventh Amendment: Civil trials. Guarantees the right to jury trial in civil cases. A civil case, such as a lawsuit, is one that does not involve criminal conduct. ■ Eighth Amendment: Bail and punishment. Bans excessive bail and punishment. The courts may not impose unreasonable bail, fines, or cruel and unusual punishment. ■ Ninth Amendment: Rights retained by the people. Guarantees other rights not listed in the Constitution or Bill of Rights. ■ Tenth Amendment: States’ rights. Reserves powers for the states and the people that are not specifically given to the national government. ○ eminent domain: the government’s right to take private property for public use, as long as fair compensation is paid; the right to fair compensation is guaranteed under the Fifth Amendment ○ civil case: a legal case that does not involve criminal conduct, such as a lawsuit ● Two Early Amendments Strengthened the New Federal Government ○ The remaining amendments came about because of a widely recognized problem, or as the result of a reform movement, or both. ● Three Civil War-Era Amendments Extended Rights to African American ○ Thirteenth Amendment made President Lincoln’s emancipation of slaves the law of the land. ○ Fourteenth Amendment overturned the Supreme Court’s Dred Scott decision— which had denied citizenship to African Americans—by making all people born in the United States citizens with equal rights and protections. ○ The Fifteenth Amendment was passed to protect the voting rights of freedmen during Reconstruction. ● Four Progressive-Era Amendments Dealt with Social and political Reforms ○ The Sixteenth Amendment allowed Congress to establish an income tax. Today the income tax is the main source of funding for the federal government. ○ Seventeenth Amendment provided for the direct election of senators. Previously, senators were elected by state legislatures. ○ Eighteenth Amendment instituted prohibition, banning the sale of alcohol. The Twenty-first Amendment later repealed prohibition.
○ The Nineteenth Amendment extended voting rights to women. ● Four Twentieth-Century Amendments Addressed Governance ○ Twentieth Amendment changed the start date of presidential and congressional terms. Known as the “lame duck” amendment, it shortened the period in which officeholders who had not been reelected remained in office.
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- Fall '16
- Craig Zupi
- United States Constitution