Employers are rational actors why women earn less

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competitive labor market(skills and qualities) determine wages. Employers are rational actors. Why women earn less Less tangible /intangible human capital Statistical Discrimination example names and hiring motherhood gender and race why woman have less capital depends on individual choices Occupation explaining the wage gap accepting assumptions explains roughly 40% of wage Other explanations include structural factors Occupational sex segregation concentrated in different job male-dominated jobs tend to pay more where you work not what their individual characteristics are is a better predictor of income Dual label market Primary is stable high-paying affordability long-term (I.E finance) room for growth secondary is advancement structure lower pay why do female dominated jobs Pay less? devaluation theory things associated with them femininity values more woman Work and family roles US family law has two traditions statuary law which is the most criminal law and common law most US family law based on five assumptions 1. husband is head of household and charge socially or financially example husbands residency status woman takes man's last name property belongs to head of household 2. Husbands responsible for economic report no regulation of noncompliance example temporary assistance for needy families for unemployment or some one incapacitated
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3. Wife responsible for domestic labor contract between spouses for paid domestic labor not legally enforced 4. Wife responsible for childcare most custody cases 85% in favor of the woman 5. Marital duty of intercourse marital rape laws Managing family roles based on assumption of roles fatherhood: monetary provider protector and Enforcer disciplinarian breadwinner household labor Motherhood: Caregiver household labor second shift
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