Research on parent’s child-rearing goals shows that American parents tend to value
independence highly as a quality that they to promote in their children
Authoritarian parenting clearly discourages independence, but the other three
parenting styles – authoritative, permissive, and disengaged - reflect parents
believes that it is good for adolescents to learn
is to learn to be independent and self-sufficient
to learn to think for
themselves and be responsible for their own behaviour
Authoritative parents promote autonomy in positive ways through
encouraging discussion and give-and-take that teaches adolescents to think
independently and make mature decisions.
Permissive and disengaged parents promote this outcome in a negative
way—that is, through the absence of restraint that allows adolescents a
great deal of autonomy without parental guidance.
The Effects of Parenting Styles on Adolescents
Authoritative parenting is associated with the most favourable outcomes, at least by
Adolescents who have authoritative parents tend to be independent, self-assured,
creative, socially skilled, get along well with peer and adults, do well in school,
develop optimism and self-regulation
All of the other parenting styles are associated with some sort of negative outcome
Adolescents with authoritarian parents tend to be dependent, passive and conforming.
They are often less self-assured, less creative, and less socially adept than other
Adolescents with permissive parents tend to be immature and irresponsible
They are more likely than other adolescents to conform to their peers
Adolescents with disengaged parents tend to be impulsive.
Partly as a consequence of their impulsiveness, and partly because disengaged
parents do little to monitor their activities, adolescents with disengaged parents
tend to have higher rates of problems such as delinquency, early sexual
involvement, and use of drugs and alcohol
Authoritative parents tend to be better for adolescents for a number of reasons
Adolescents must be able to move into adult roles after adolescence and they need
to be given a greater amount of responsibility. At the same time, they lack the
experience with the world and with their own impulses and abilities that adults