Course Hero Logo

Technology in mind are no longer relevant and

Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. This preview shows page 199 - 201 out of 224 pages.

technology in mind, are no longer relevant and appropriate to suit the current practice in themodern shipping industry.6.3 THE HAGUE-VISBY RULESAfter half a century of global change, there was a movement to modernize the Hague Rules. TheComit’e Maritime International(CMI) initiated a reconsideration of the Rules. The diplomaticconference at Brussels adopted a Protocol to amend the Hague Rules on 23 February 1968. The1968 Brussels Protocol brought the Hague Rules a little more in line with the needs of thechanged world. The amended Hague Rules have become known as the ‘Hague-Visby Rules’(“The Rules”).The Rules (the Brussels Protocol of February 23, 1968) should not be considered as a separateconvention with the Hague Rules. The Rules are amendments to the Brussels Convention 1924and article 6 of the Protocol shall be read and interpreted together as one single instrument.REFORMS UNDER THE HAGUE-VISBY RULESTerritorial ApplicationIt is clear from the wordings of the section that The Hague Rules shall only automatically applyto the carriage of goods by sea if the shipment is ‘outward’ for example shipment from a port ofSingapore to a foreign port.The Rules have made an important amendment to the Hague Rules whereby its territorialapplication is extended in order to solve the conflict of laws problems of the Hague Rules.Article X of the Rules Amendments provides that the Rules apply in three types of voyageswhere:i. The bill of lading is issued in a Contracting State; orii. The carriage is from a port in a Contracting State; oriii. The contract contained in or evidenced by the bill of lading provides that these Rules orlegislation of any State giving effect to them are to govern the contract.
We have textbook solutions for you!
/Microeconomics-A-Contemporary-Introduction-11th-Edition-9781305505537-511/
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chapter 19 / Exercise 01
Microeconomics: A Contemporary Introduction
McEachern
Expert Verified
199The Rules clearly provided that when the contract of carriage falls within one of the cases set outin Article X of the Rules, then the Rules must apply whatever be the proper law of the contract.In other words, the Rules apply by force of law and often inwards and outwards shipment.Increase in Maximum Limitation of LiabilityThe Rules increase the maximum amount for limitation of liability of a carrier and introduce anew weight-based criterion: 10 francs per package or unit or 30 francs per kilo of gross weight ofthe goods lost or damaged. Article IV Rule 5 provides that neither the carrier nor the ship in anyevent be or become liable for any loss or damage to the goods in an amount exceeding theequivalent of 666.67 units of account per package or unit, or 2 units of account per kilo, of grossweight of the goods lost or damaged, whichever is the higher. The term ‘package’ refers toindication that something is packed and the term ‘units’ refers to freight units in use in varioustrades. Article IV Rule 5(a) of the Rules changed the application of the Hague Rules, the packagelimitation under the Rules is higher than U.S. $500.00 and the Rules provides a per kilo as well,which latter limitation can be very high.

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 224 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Summer
Professor
NoProfessor
We have textbook solutions for you!
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Microeconomics: A Contemporary Introduction
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chapter 19 / Exercise 01
Microeconomics: A Contemporary Introduction
McEachern
Expert Verified

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture