the boldly modernist paintings displayed at New York’s Armory Show. Science and modernism did not, however, displace religion. Newly arrived Catholics and Jews, as well as old-line Protestants, adapted their faith to the conditions of modern life. Foreign missions, in the meantime, spread the Christian gospel around the world, with mixed results for those receiving the message.Ch. 19Chicago school: A school of architecture dedicated to the design of buildings whose form expressed, rather than masked, their structure and function.mutual aid society: An urban aid society that served members of an ethnic immigrant group, usually those from a particular province or town. The societies functioned as fraternal clubs that collected dues from members in order to pay support in case of death or disability.race riot: A term for an attack on African Americans by white mobs, triggered by political conflicts, street altercations, or rumors of crime. In some cases, such “riots” were not spontaneous but planned in advance by a group of leaders seeking to enforce white supremacy.tenement: A high-density, cheap, five- or six-story housing unit designed for working-class urban populations. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, tenements became a symbol of urban immigrant poverty.vaudeville: A professional stage show popular in the 1880s and 1890s that included singing, dancing, and comedy routines; it created a form of family entertainment for the urban masses that deeply influenced later forms, such as radio shows and television sitcoms.ragtime: A form of music, apparently named for its “ragged rhythm,” that became wildly popular in the early twentieth century among audiences of all classes and races and that ushered in an urban dance craze. Ragtime was an important form of “crossover” music, borrowed from working-class African Americans by enthusiasts who were white and middle class.blues: A form of American music that originated in the Deep South, especially from the black workers in the cotton fields of the Mississippi Delta.yellow journalism: A derogatory term for newspapers that specialize in sensationalistic reporting. Yellow journalism is associated with the inflammatory reporting by the Hearst and Pulitzer newspapers leading up to the Spanish-American War in 1898.muckrakers: A critical term, first applied by Theodore Roosevelt, for investigative journalists who
published exposés of political scandals and industrial abuses.political machine: A complex, hierarchical party organization such as New York’s Tammany Hall, whose candidates remained in office on the strength of their political organization and their personal relationship with voters, especially working-class immigrants who had little alternative access to political power.National Municipal League: A political reform organization that advised cities to elect small councilsand hire professional city managers who would direct operations like a corporate executive.