Phosphorus map white scale bar 30 nm esi tomography

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Phosphorus map (white) scale bar = 30 nm ESI-Tomography of fibroblast chromocentre Constitutive heterochromatin contains 10 nm fibres
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ESI-Tomography of fibroblast chromocentre Constitutive heterochromatin contains 10 nm fibres
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ESI-Tomography of chromatin in mouse spleen lymphocyte compact chromatin domains consist of 10 nm fibres Eden Fussner, Ugi Djuric
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Model: Hierarchy of fibre types required to compact chromatin Olins et al. Science 1974 Horowitz et al. JCB 1994 Horn and Peterson Science 2002
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ESC 37% Lymphocyte 48% Hepatocyte 14% Differentiated cells display compact chromatin domains, but fraction of nuclear volume occupied by chromatin is cell-type specific Rod cell 69%
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Summary Dispersal of chromatin to 10 nm fibres in heterochromatin domains is a hallmark of pluripotent cells. Heterochromatin as defined biochemically (e.g. H3K9Me3) does not have to be highly compact. A transition between 10nm and higher order fibres does not characterize the transition between “open” and “closed” chromatin domains. Compaction of DNA can be accomplished by modulating linear nucleosome density, degree of fibre bending, and fibre-fibre distances. H1, HP1, PCC SWI/SNF, HATs
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