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the message are reconstructed into the original message. Message TimingThese are the rules of engagement for message timing. Access MethodAccess method determines when someone is able to send a message. If two people talk at the same time, a collision of information occurs and it is necessary for the two to back off and start again Likewise, it is necessary for computers to define an access method. Hosts on a network need an access method to know when to begin sending messages and how to respond when collisions occur. Flow ControlTiming also affects how much information can be sent and the speed that it can be delivered. If one person speaks too quickly, it is difficult for the other person to hear and understand the message .In network communication, source and destination hosts use flow control methods to negotiate correct timing for successful communication. Response TimeoutHosts on the network also have rules that specify how long to wait for responses and what action to take if a response timeout occurs.
Message Delivery OptionsA one-to-one delivery option is referred to as a unicast, meaning there is only a single destination for the message. When a host needs to send messages using a one-to-many delivery option, it is referred to as a multicast. Multicasting is the delivery of the same message to a group of host destinations simultaneously. If all hosts on the network need to receive the message at the same time, a broadcastmay be used. Broadcasting represents a one-to-all message delivery option. Rules that Govern CommunicationsA group of inter-related protocols necessary to perform a communication function is called a protocol suite. Protocol suites are implemented by hosts and networking devices in software, hardware or both. Network ProtocolsFor devices to successfully communicate, a network protocol suite must describe precise requirements and interactions. Networking protocols define a common format and set of rules for exchanging messages between devices. Some common networking protocols are Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), and Internet Protocol (IP). Networking protocols that describe the following processes “ Role of protocol ”: How the message is formatted or structured The process by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks
How and when error and system messages are passed between devices The setup and termination of data transfer sessions Protocol InteractionHTTP -is an application protocol that governs the way a web server and a web client interact. TCP- is the transport protocol that manages the individual conversations. TCP divides the HTTP messages into smaller pieces, called segments. These segments are sent between the web server and client processes running at the destination host. IP -is responsible for taking the formatted segments from TCP, encapsulating them into packets, assigning them the appropriate addresses, and delivering them to the destination host.