We provide a com prehensive overview of the process we followed in conduct ing

We provide a com prehensive overview of the process

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/ information science and engineering. We provide a com- prehensive overview of the process we followed in conduct- ing the systematic literature review (SLR) through the link: . In this paper, we present a pragmatic view from this search focusing on the potential of blockchain for EHRs to answer the above two questions. The remainder of this paper is structured as follows: Section 2 provides a background on blockchain. Section 3 provides a brief overview of extracted studies on blockchain for EHRs along with the advantages. Section 4 discusses the challenges that face incorporating blockchain in action, while Section 5 provides the concluding remarks. II. B LOCKCHAIN : B ACKGROUND Blockchain is an ascending technology that consists in a append-only distributed ledger. New entries are added exclu- sively by appending them at the end of the ledger, the ledger is built as a chronological chain of blocks; hence its name. A blockchain technology is iconically characterized as being (i) immutable , (ii) decentralized , and (iii) consensual , explained as follows. Blockchain is a block hosts with a time-stamped set of transactions that are bundled together. Each new block is linked to its preceding block. Combined with cryptographic hashes, this time-stamped chain of blocks provides a hopefully immutable record of all transactions in a network, from the genesis block until the last / most current block. This is in contrast with a traditional relational database where data can be deleted or modified, there is no administrator permissions within a blockchain that allow for deleting or editing of the recorded data. A blockchain comprises a set of nodes without a pre- existing trust relationship and are connected through a peer-to- peer network [3]. Each node will host the same exact copy of a blockchain creating a decentralized structure. But for such a structure to be useful, there must exist some mechanism by which the nodes can mutually reach a consensus on the next valid block in the chain to be added. The consensus mechanisms are protocols that make sure all nodes (devices on the blockchain that maintains the blockchain and (sometimes) processes transactions) are synchronized with each other and agree on which transactions are legitimate and added to the blockchain. These consensus mechanisms are crucial for a blockchain in order to correctly work. Some of the deployed schemes for establishing such a distributed consensus include: Proof of Work, Proof of Stake, Proof of Capacity, Proof of Human-Work, Proof of Activity and Proof of Elapsed Time. In addition to decentralization , consensus and immutabil- ity , a blockchain network also has two additional key charac- 3 teristics: (iv) Provenance and (v) finality . Provenance com- prises the support for participants of the network to know where the “asset” came from and how its ownership has changed over time; while finality refers to a single and shared ledger providing one unique place to support one to determine the ownership of an asset or the completion of a transaction.
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  • Winter '17
  • Pro. James Abbakarr
  • Electronic health record

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