54 concluding remarks to answer the title question of

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5.4 Concluding Remarks To answer the title question of this chapter, will clothing be sustainable, there are clearly challenges. Section 1 describes the systemic challenges for sustainable fashion, current initiatives and the different actors involved. Section 2 elaborates on the technical challenges in assessing the status of sustainability in the clothing industry today. The complexity of the textile supply chain has led to that many simpli fi cations and assumptions have been made, which have in some cases been used in a broader context than what they originally were intended for, i.e. being Will Clothing Be Sustainable? Clarifying Sustainable Fashion 39
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assumed to have a higher generality and representativeness than they actually have (described in 5.3 ). Section 3 is an attempt to describe the state of sustainability , to give us a notion of what we strive to achieve. If we know the state of the envi- ronmental and social impacts of the clothing industry today, and we know how the state of sustainability could look like, we can suddenly see whether we are near sustainability or far from it. Section 4 evaluates quantitatively the climate savings that would be the result of some commonly proposed interventions. Considering climate change, the results show that only one of the proposed interventions replacing all fossil energy used in the product life cycle with renewable energy leads to the presented goal for sustainability. However, con- sidering the unlikeliness of fully abandoning non-renewable energy sources before 2050, and that sustainability is about so much more than climate change, it is clear that several interventions need to be implemented. The industry, policy makers, consumers and citizens must thus collaborate to make clothing sustainable. Appendix See Table 17 . Table 17 Data for applying the ethical principles in step 4 of the procedure of Sandin et al. ( 2015 ), in the context of the Swedish, USA and Chinese clothing sectors, as described in Sect. 3.3 Data References Global population Current ( P GloCur ) 7.35 billion United Nations ( 2015a ) Low estimate 2050 ( P GloFut ) 8.71 billion United Nations ( 2015a ) High estimate 2050 ( P GloFut ) 10.8 billion United Nations ( 2015a ) National population Sweden US China Current ( P RegCur ) 9.78 million 322 million 1380 million United Nations ( 2015a ) Estimate 2050 ( P RegFut ) 11.9 million 389 million 1350 million United Nations ( 2015a ) Ratio of global to national per capita impact ( I Glo / I Reg ) Sweden US China Interferences with the global nitrogen cycle 0.38 0.80 3.57 8.66 0.31 0.44 Low fi gure for Sweden and US, high fi gure for China: (Lenzen et al. 2013 ); High fi gure for Sweden and US, low fi gure for China: (Mekonnen and Hoekstra 2011 ) Interferences with the global phosphorus cycle 0.48 0.39 0.88 Metson et al. ( 2012 ) Global freshwater use 1.04 0.63 1.43 Mekonnen and Hoekstra ( 2011 ) Changes in biosphere integrity 0.36 0.32 0.76 GFN ( 2016 ) The abbreviations in parenthesis in the fi rst column correspond to the terms used in Eqs. 2 5 of Sandin et al.
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  • Sustainable fashion, Sandra Roos

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