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them to use their power over lesser lords and their general population.7. How did the Christian Church enhance its power and create new institutions and religious practices?In the 11thand 12thcenturies saw papacy consolidated their power and the kings and emperors challenged the consolidation. During this time monasteries were still very important for learning and devotion, while new religious groups were established. Christianity spread to Europe’s northern and eastern areas. In Spain the Christian rulers expanded Christianity into Muslim controlled Spain. Religion became the structure of people’s daily lives and a yearly calendar was developed.Pope Gregory VII expanded and reformed the papal power. He set restrictions thathad all priest give up their families or be removed. He invalidates the ordination of church officials who paid for their offices and he placed nuns under a stricter male authority. Henry IV strongly opposed Pope Gregory’s reform. Pope Gregory VII threatened Henry IV to have him removed. Henry IV went to the pope’s home in Canossaand stood outside in the snow for three days asking for forgiveness from the pope.
World Civilization I 10 8. How did the lives of common people, nobles, and townspeople differ, and what new commercial development increased wealth?Medieval Europeans were mainly peasants who lived in small villages and worked their lords and own land. Even though peasants had an opportunity for social mobility, they lived hard lives and were bound to their land. A small part of the population were the nobles. The nobles used there power in all ways of life. The medieval culture was overshadowed by the aristocrats due to their values and attitude known as chivalry.Medieval cities and towns started as trading centers and they recruited countryside people by promising them freedom and greater and new possibilities. These cities and towns became production centers which saw merchants and artisans establish guilds to protect their products and livelihoods. Most people in the cities and towns lived hand to mouth and never saw any of the new wealth.
World Civilization I 11 9. Why have the later Middle Ages been seen as a time of calamity and crisis?The 14thcentury saw a lot of bad weather which caused low harvest rates. The lowharvest brought international economic depression as well as disease. The main disease ofthis time was the Black Death. The Black Death caused sever loss of population as well as social, psychological and economical loss. On top off the Black Death was the Hundred Year’s War, which saw the French country side destroyed and England go bankrupt. The Western Christian Church was weakened by the rivalry between local popes. This rivalry also sparked peasants and workers to start an uprising. Even though the revolts started quickly they ended quickly by the noble landlords. The landlords would reassert the workers and peasants of their labor services instead of paying a cash paymentthe landlords efforts were not always successful.
World Civilization I 12 PART II; JournalDirections: The purpose of the journal is to actively engage in self-learning and opportunities to clarify and reflect upon your thinking of world history in different ways.