2: Biological Beginnings

Genetic principles dominant recessive and sex linked

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Genetic Principles: dominant-recessive and sex-linked genes Dominant genes are “always” expressed Recessive genes expressed if in pairs. X-linked inheritance: gene carried on X chromosome
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Females are carriers Males may express the gene Genetic Principles Genetic Imprinting Genes can have different effects whether they are coming from the mother material or the fathers: a chemical process “silences” one member of the gene pair where only one copy of the gene might be active Polygenic Inheritance Most characteristics determined by the interaction of many genes Twins with different hair color, skin tone or eye color. Genetic Abnormalities Down syndrome Klinefelter syndrome (XXY) Fragile X syndrome Turner syndrome (XO) XYY syndrome Gene-Linked Abnormalities Cystic fibrosis Diabetes etc. Prenatal Diagnostic Tests Maternal Blood Screening Measures substances in mother's blood; identifies elevated risk for birth defects Ultrasound Sonography High-frequency sound waves used to detect structural abnormalities and determine the number and sex of the fetuses. Chorionic Villus Sampling A sample of the placenta is removed: used to detect genetic defects, fetal sex and chromosomal abnormalities Amniocentesis A sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn and tested for chromosomal or metabolic disorders Fetal MRI Magnetic resonance imaging used to diagnose fetal malformations: can provide more detailed images than an ultrasound Infertility and Reproductive Technology Infertility: the inability to conceive a child after 12 months of regular intercourse without contraception 10-15% of U.S. couples experience this
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  • Spring '08
  • KJKIM
  • Genetics, Evolutionary Perspective

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