Population inferences Quantitative Generalizable findings Case Study Places

Population inferences quantitative generalizable

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testing resulting hypotheses. Population inferencesQuantitativeGeneralizable findingsCase StudyPlaces more emphasis on full contextual analysis of a few events or conditions and their interrelations. Case studies rely on qualitative data and emphasize the use of results for insight into problem-solving, evaluation, and strategy.While case studies are not considered “scientific,”they do play an important role in challenging theory, providing new hypotheses, and offering new ideas on constructs.
The Research EnvironmentDesigns also differ as to whether they occur under actual environmental conditions. Field conditions mean that the research occurs in the actual environmental conditions where the dependent variable occurs. Under laboratoryconditions, the studies occur under conditions that do not simulate actual environmental conditions. In a simulation, the study environment seeks to replicate the natural environment in a controlled situation.
Participants’ perceptional awarenessThe usefulness of a research design is reduced when people in a disguisedstudyperceive that research is being conducted. Participants’ perceptions can influence the outcomes of research. This was first discovered in the 1920s when researchers at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company found that participants reacted favourably to receiving attention.There are three levels of perception to consider:No deviation perceivedDeviations perceived as unrelatedDeviations perceived as researcher-induced
Exploratory StudyThe objectives of exploration may be accomplished with qualitative and quantitative techniques, but exploration relies more heavily on qualitative techniques. Qualitative techniques are non-quantitative data collection used to increase understanding of a topic. Qualitative refers to the meaning, definition, analogy, model, or metaphor characterizing something (on the other hand, quantitative assumes the meaning and refers to a measure of it)The many approaches useful for exploratory investigations include:Participant observationFilm, photographsProjective techniquesPsychological testingCase studiesEthnographyExpert interviewsDocument analysisProxemics and Kinesics
Exploratory Study (cont.)Commonly used Exploratory TechniquesSecondary data analysis (literature search).researchers should start first with an organization’s own data archives second, published documents prepared by authors outside the sponsor organizationExperience surveys are semi-structured or unstructured interviews with experts on a topic or a dimension of a topicFocus groups are discussions on a topic involving a small group of participants led by a trained moderatorTwo-stage design
Exploratory Study (cont.)Experience SurveysExperience surveys are sometimes called expert interviews or key informant surveys.

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