Lincoln took the position that states did not havethe right to secede from the Union. In 1861, heordered that provisions be sent to the federaltroops stationed at Fort Sumter in Charleston har-bor. South Carolinians fired on the fort—and theCivil War was under way. The Union’s victory inthe war ended the most serious challenge to fed-eral authority: states did not have the right tosecede from the Union.▼1957LITTLE ROCK CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOLISSUE:Some Southern governors refused toobey federal desegregation mandates forschools.In 1957, President Eisenhower mobilized federal troops in Little Rock, Arkansas, toenforce the Supreme Court’s 1954 ruling in the case of Brownv. Board of Education ofTopeka.This ruling made segregation in publicschools illegal. The Arkansas National Guardescorted nine African-American students intoLittle Rock Central High School against thewishes of Governor Orval Faubus, who hadtried to prevent the students from enteringthe school. After this incident, Faubus closedthe high schools in Little Rock in 1958 and1959, thereby avoiding desegregation.THINKING CRITICALLY▼CONNECT TO HISTORY1. Creating a ChartFor each incident pictured, create achart that tells who was on each side of the issue,summarizes each position, and explains how the issuewas resolved. CONNECT TO TODAY2. Using Primary and Secondary SourcesResearchone of the controversies in the bulleted list in the open-ing paragraph or another states’ rights controversy ofthe 1990s or 2000s. Decide which side you support.Write a paragraph explaining your position on the issue.SEE SKILLBUILDER HANDBOOK, PAGE R22.The Union in Peril323IRESEARCH LINKSCLASSZONE.COM
324CHAPTER10Terms & NamesMAIN IDEAMAIN IDEAOne American's StorySlavery and Secession•Dred Scott•Roger B. Taney•Abraham Lincoln•Freeport Doctrine•Harpers Ferry•Confederacy•Jefferson DavisA series of controversialevents heightened thesectional conflict thatbrought the nation to thebrink of war. Secession created deepdivisions in American societythat persist to the present time.WHY IT MATTERS NOWWHY IT MATTERS NOWOn June 16, 1858, the Republican Party of Illinois nom-inated its state chairman, Abraham Lincoln, to run forthe U.S. Senate against Democratic incumbent StephenA. Douglas. That night Lincoln launched his campaignwith a ringing address to the convention. It included abiblical quotation.A PERSONALVOICEABRAHAM LINCOLN“‘A house divided against itself cannot stand.’ I believethis government cannot endure permanently half slaveand half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved—I do not expect the house to fall—but I do expect itwill cease to be divided. It will become allone thing orall the other. Either the opponentsof slavery will arrestthe further spread of it . . . or its advocateswill push itforward, till it shall become alike lawful in alltheStates,oldas well as new,Northas well as South.