Lincoln took the position that states did not have

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Lincoln took the position that states did not have the right to secede from the Union. In 1861, he ordered that provisions be sent to the federal troops stationed at Fort Sumter in Charleston har- bor. South Carolinians fired on the fort—and the Civil War was under way. The Union’s victory in the war ended the most serious challenge to fed- eral authority: states did not have the right to secede from the Union. 1957 LITTLE ROCK CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL ISSUE: Some Southern governors refused to obey federal desegregation mandates for schools. In 1957, President Eisenhower mobilized federal troops in Little Rock, Arkansas, to enforce the Supreme Court’s 1954 ruling in the case of Brown v. Board of Educa t ion of Topeka. This ruling made segregation in public schools illegal. The Arkansas National Guard escorted nine African-American students into Little Rock Central High School against the wishes of Governor Orval Faubus, who had tried to prevent the students from entering the school. After this incident, Faubus closed the high schools in Little Rock in 1958 and 1959, thereby avoiding desegregation. THINKING CRITICALLY CONNECT TO HISTORY 1. Creating a Chart For each incident pictured, create a chart that tells who was on each side of the issue, summarizes each position, and explains how the issue was resolved. CONNECT TO TODAY 2. Using Primary and Secondary Sources Research one of the controversies in the bulleted list in the open- ing paragraph or another states’ rights controversy of the 1990s or 2000s. Decide which side you support. Write a paragraph explaining your position on the issue. SEE SKILLBUILDER HANDBOOK, PAGE R22. The Union in Peril 323 I RESEARCH LINKS CLASSZONE.COM
324 C HAPTER 10 Terms & Names MAIN IDEA MAIN IDEA One American's Story Slavery and Secession Dred Scott Roger B. Taney Abraham Lincoln Freeport Doctrine Harpers Ferry Confederacy Jefferson Davis A series of controversial events heightened the sectional conflict that brought the nation to the brink of war. Secession created deep divisions in American society that persist to the present time. WHY IT MATTERS NOW WHY IT MATTERS NOW On June 16, 1858, the Republican Party of Illinois nom- inated its state chairman, Abraham Lincoln, to run for the U.S. Senate against Democratic incumbent Stephen A. Douglas. That night Lincoln launched his campaign with a ringing address to the convention. It included a biblical quotation. A P ERSONAL V OICE ABRAHAM LINCOLN ‘A house divided against itself cannot stand.’ I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half f ree . I do not expect the Union to be dissolved —I do not expect the house to fall—but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing or all the other. Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it . . . or its advocates will push it forward, till it shall become alike lawful in all the States, old as well as new , North as well as South .

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