Antoninus pius 138 161 ad human and just reforms

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Antoninus Pius (138-161 AD) human and just reforms, limits on the torture of slaves, innocent until proven guilty Marcus Aurelisu (161-180 AD) renewed conflict in the east with Parthia. Soldiers brought back an epidemic that decimated the population. Nerva to Marcus “The 5 Good Emperors” The “time of happiness” Pax Romana Emperors didn’t use military forces needlessly but fought for sensible political goals. Generals did not wage war recklessly but tried to limit casualities, avoid risks, and deter conflicts by a show of force. 1) Constructive Rule: built 53,000 miles of road Scotland to Euphrates, improved harbors, drained swamps, cleared forests, irrigated deserts, and cultivated undeveloped lands. Fresh water for drinking and bathing, roads guarded by soldiers and no priates. Trade made easy. Stable currency. 212 AD citizenship was extended to all free men 2) Improved Conditions for Slaves and Women Freed slaves became citizens Women can own property and keep dowry if divorced. 3) An Orderly World Community 50-60 million people united under Roman rule. Resolved problems of civil war, intercity warfare, and a parochial attitude that divided Greek and non-Greeks Roman Culture and Law during the Pax Romana 1) Literature and History: Virgil (70-19 BC) wrote Aeneid at the request of Augustus : literary epic of national glory. Roman virtues: 1) patriotism 2) devotion to the family 3) duty to the state 4) strong sense of religion. 2) Rome’s mission: to bring peace and civilized life to the world. 3) Livy (59BC-17AD) History of Rome glorified Roman character customs and deeds. 4) Philosophy: Stoicsm , endorsed by Seneca (4 BC-65AD), Epictetus (60-117 AD), and Marcus Aurelisu.
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*universe governed by reason and human intellect is awesome. * No power above human reason *Moral values are formed from reason. 5) Science : Ptolemy (mathematician, geographer and astronomer) worked at Alexandria in the 2 nd Century AD Galen (130-201 AD) medicine and autonomy * Ptolemy’s Mathematical Composition (summary of knowledge of astronomy) Earth was center of universe. *Galen rational investigation of how the body works 6) Art and Architecture: Art from the Greeks, particularly sculptures Pantheon (2 nd Century AD) 7) Engineering: baths, amphitheaters, roads (eye for minimizing the natural barriers and drainage problems) Stone bridges across rivers, aqueducts 8) Law: foundation of civil law (jus civile) foundation of law of nations (jus gentium) *civil law: 12 tables: written rules of criminal and civil law for the Roman state that applied to all citizens. *national law: combination of Roman and Greek and other provinces 8) Enertainment: gladiators, chariot races, wild-animal shows Signs of Trouble *unrest in Gaul, Judea and Egypt (some still wanted freedom) 1) Social and Economic Weakness: communication and transport were slow. No capitol investment by nobles. *Cultural gap between the town and countryside.
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