Clinical Symptoms Other systems due to lack of its enzymatic presence Gastritis

Clinical symptoms other systems due to lack of its

This preview shows page 48 - 56 out of 110 pages.

Clinical Symptoms Other systems due to lack of its enzymatic presence Gastritis, irritability, headache, numbness/tingling, vasomotor disturbance Confusion/memory loss in the elderly; may be missed as part of aging
Image of page 48
+ Iron Deficiency Anemia Evaluation Clinical manifestations and lab tests Iron: normal is 50-160mcg/dL Total Iron binding capacity (TIBC): normal is 250-350mcg/dL Amount of iron in blood IF all sites were saturated with iron Ferritin: normal varies greatly with age Proportional to the body’s iron stores Treatment Find cause of blood loss and correct it Replacement therapy with oral iron 150-200mg/day until ferritin level reaches 50mg/L (adequate replacement) Will also see resolution of symptoms Continue for an additional 6-12 months May be continuous until menopause for menorrhagia
Image of page 49
+ Sideroblastic Anemia Group of anemias with abnormal hemoglobin synthesis in the marrow caused by inefficient iron uptake Ringed sideroblasts in the marrow Ring is made of iron granules that circle the nucleus instead of being synthesized into hemoglobin Acquired sideroblastic anemia Most common and idiopathic Hereditary sideroblastic anemia Rare, X-linked and generally involves males Usually not detected until midlife when complications arise (cardiac failure) Reversible sideroblastic anemia Associated with alcoholism, nutritional folate deficiencies
Image of page 50
+ Sideroblastic Anemia Clinical picture Similar to general anemia Also show signs of iron overload (hemosiderosis) No usual skin or neurologic alterations Mild to moderate enlargement of spleen and liver with normal function Bronze-tinted skin Rhythm disturbances due to hemosiderosis of cardiac tissue (later on) Growth and development issues in infants/children
Image of page 51
+ Sideroblastic Anemia Evaluation Bone marrow biopsy showing sideroblasts with rings Treatment Pyridoxine therapy with varied response Goal: Normal hemoglobin levels but cell morphology remains abnormal If pyridoxine is not successful, blood transfusions for symptom relief Monitor for iron overload from multiple transfusions Deferoxamine(iron-chelating agent) to reduce iron levels
Image of page 52
+ Normochromic-Normocytic Anemias Cell size: normal Cell color: normal Five anemias in this category 1. Aplastic: rare, hault in production of RBCs 2.Posthemorrhagic: severe blood loss with normal iron stores 3. Hemolytic: breakdown of RBCs 4. Anemia of chronic inflammation: decreased RBC lifespan 5. Sickle cell disease: change in shape All involve the loss of RBCs or decreased lifespan
Image of page 53
+ Myeloproliferative Red Cell Disorders Polycythemia: excessive red cell production Relative Hemoconcentration of blood related to dehydration Resolves with fluid; assess via the CBC and electrolytes Absolute Not related to fluid loss; two types Primary Polycythemia Vera Secondary More common and due to erythropoietin secretion from hypoxia High altitude, increased CO 2 levels (smokers), COPD, CHF
Image of page 54
+ Polycythemia Vera (Primary)
Image of page 55
Image of page 56

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 110 pages?

  • Fall '18
  • Hematology, Hemoglobin, Bone marrow,  Fibrinogen

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture