boundaries, consolidation can end duplicate services and provide a better tax base.Most metropolitan areas spread across several county lines.oForming special districts: Cities and suburbs have learned to join together inspecial districts in order to tackle area-wide problems. Each city and suburb in thedistrict sends an elected or appointed representative to the governing board of thespecial district. A well-managed special district combines area-wide planning anda broad tax base for solving big-city problems. oIntercity cooperation: The job of metropolitan councils is to combat commonproblems. The federal government requires intercity cooperation before it sendsmany types of aid to the city. Intercity cooperation breaks down when one of themember cities refuses to accept the result of a vote taken by the council. oMetropolitan government: A metropolitan system is a new government take overdepartments and services that are of concern to an entire region. Residentsapparently fear that these ’super governments’ will become too powerful for localvoters to control. 12. How do cities deal with the most critical problems?
1960s. Air, water, and noise pollution have all become National headaches. o Air pollution: Breathing smoggy, polluted air has become a health hazard in many cities. Cities are not the only place affected by air pollution. the chemicals released into the air combines with the moisture in the air to create acid rain that kills trees wildlife and farm crops. o water pollution: Industrial waste, sewage, and pesticides and fertilizers are poisoning our waters. Lakes and rivers “die” with pollutants and unable to support life. o Noise pollution: Cities update size and they're only getting noisier. The constant noise is not merely a nuisance; exposure to high noise levels can lead to increased stress,damaged hearing, and lower productivity.
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