Glencoe Health 2005.pdf

Carbohydrates whats your idea of a healthful meal on

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Carbohydrates What’s your idea of a healthful meal? On a sheet of paper, describe a nutritious meal that you would enjoy. Then make a list of the health benefits that you think you would get from this meal. 114 Chapter 5 Nutrition and Your Health VOCABULARY carbohydrates fiber proteins lipid vitamins minerals Each of these foods is rich in one or more nutrients. Which of these foods do you eat regularly?
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Start your day with a whole- grain breakfast cereal, such as oatmeal. Choose whole fruit instead of fruit juice. Make sure you eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Select high-fiber snacks (popcorn, raw vegetables, nuts, and fruit with edible skins). Eat legumes at least two or three times a week. Substitute whole-grain ingredients (whole-wheat flour, bran) for low-fiber ingredients (white flour) in recipes whenever possible. To get 20–35 grams of fiber daily: Getting More Fiber into Your Diet Lesson 2 Nutrients 115 Each of these foods is a rich source of carbohydrates. Simple and Complex Carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates are sugars, such as fructose and lactose (found in fruit and milk, respectively). You’re probably most famil- iar with the simple carbohydrate sucrose. It occurs naturally in many plants, such as sugarcane and sugar beets, and is refined to make table sugar. Sugars are added to many manufactured food products. Complex carbohydrates, or starches, are found in whole grains, seeds, nuts, legumes (dried peas and beans), and tubers (root vegeta- bles such as potatoes). The body must break down complex carbo- hydrates into simple carbohydrates before it can use them for energy. The Role of Carbohydrates Your body converts all carbohydrates to glucose, a simple sugar that is the body’s main source of energy. Glucose that your body does not use right away is stored in the liver and muscles as a starch-like substance called glycogen (GLI-coh-jen). When more energy is needed, your body converts the glycogen back to glucose. However, it’s possible to take in more carbohydrates than your body can use right away or can store as glycogen. When this happens, your body converts and stores the excess carbohydrates as body fat. You can avoid consuming excess carbohydrates by learn- ing to make informed food choices and maintaining healthful eating habits. Fiber is an indigestible complex carbohydrate that is found in the tough, stringy parts of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Although it can’t be digested and used as energy, fiber helps move waste through the digestive system and thereby helps prevent intestinal problems such as constipation. Eating enough fiber throughout your life may promote health by reducing your risk of heart disease. Some types of fiber have also been shown to help control diabetes by reducing blood glucose levels.
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