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1. 9/11 created revulsion across the world, and in the United States; Americans uni-fied in grief and anger against Osama bin laden and al-Qaeda, the militant Islamist group that organized the attack2. President George W. Bush gained broad public support for security measures to curb future terrorist violence and secure the American homeland3. Internationally, Bush declared a war on terror and sent military forces to Afghani-stan to hunt bin Laden, destroy al-Qaeda training camps, and topple the Taliban government that had provided a haven for terrorists4. In 2003, Bush ordered an invasion of Iraq, falsely charging Saddam Hussein with producing weapons of mass destruction and aiding the terrorist assault of 9/11a. The United States sent a military coali-tion of Britain, Spain, Italy, and eastern European nations who quickly over-threw Hussein’s regimeb. The U.S. coalition faced greater chal-lenges to restoring order, improving living standards, and persuading Iraqis LECTURE OUTLINEAt the end of the twentieth century, people across the world celebrated the end of the cold war and hoped for an end to the history of ideological conflicts. People of the twentieth-first century began experiencing possibilities and problems specific to their region while also grap-pling with common challenges. Terrorism, the war against terror, economic crisis, global warming, demographic changes, poverty, disease, deepening inequalities, immi-grant issues, and genocide are some of the problems facing twenty-first- century globalization. Finding solutions to these issues also allowed for other kinds of local, regional, and global possibilities. Antiglobalization is widespread and has found appeal around the world, with the greatest influence in the poorest parts of the world where the costs of globalization are often lethal. Global economic, cul-tural, political, and environmental exchange and integra-tion will continue, but local religious diversity, political institutions, economic competition, and environmental particularities will also persist, creating dynamic tensions that both link our worlds together and pull them apart.I. Global ChallengesA. On September 11, 2001, 19 hijackers comman-deered four airplanes; two of them slammed into the World Trade Center in New York City, a third into the Pentagon (U.S. Department of Defense), and the fourth was deterred from its ▶Russia, China, and IndiaEconomic, Globalization, and Political EffectsInternal Divisions, External Rivalries▶The Middle East, Africa, and Latin AmericaThe Arab SpringPoverty, Disease, and GenocideDeepening Inequalities▶Global ChallengesWar on TerrorIslamic MilitancyThe Global Economic CrisisGlobal StirringsGlobal Warming▶The United States, the European Union, and JapanA Changing Western EuropeDemographic IssuesAnti-Immigrant SentimentsEPI LO GU E2001–The Present
296◆Epilogue2001–The Presentfundamental elements of the Muslim faith as a global alternative to modern, Western influences3. Local conditions conspired to lend trac-