Regeneration recuperate function example liver and skin injuries Fibrosis

Regeneration recuperate function example liver and

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-Regeneration: recuperate function; example: liver and skin injuries -Fibrosis: damaged cells repaired with scar tissue of collagen fibers. Example: keloid, lung tissue scaring inTB 21. Wound Healing of Laceration Damaged vessels leak blood Mast cells produce histamine and heparin (dilate blood vessels; therefore, blood flow increases, and heparins inhibits blood from clotting) Plasma enters the wound (brings with it clotting factors, WBCs, and antibodies) Clot forms Scab forms Macrophages clean up internal debris New capillaries grow into the wound
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Fibroblasts deposit collagen and replace debris Fibroblastic phase occurs in the 3-4 day and lasts up to two weeks. Cells in the epithelial multiply and spread beneath the scab Scab falls off Epithelium grows thick & stronger CT forms only scar tissue Remodeling phase takes up to 2 years 22. Overview of the Integumentary System The skin is the largest organ of the human body. 15% of body weight Skin has the following structures: Epidermis (5 layers; made up of Stratified squamous epithelium), dermis (CT), Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer), hair and follicles, and cutaneous glands. Thick Skin is normally 1-2mm or up to 6 mm. Found in soles of the feet and palm of the hands. The thin skin is found in the rest of the body; specific examples include lips and eyelids. The thin skin has only 4 layers (this feature makes it more sensory to receptors) in the epidermis while the thick has 5. 23. Layers of the Epidermis Stratum Basale Stratum Spinosum Stratum Granulosum Stratum Lucidum (Thick Skin Only) Stratum Corneum -Made up of single layer of cells either cuboidal or low columnar -They have keratinocytes that undergo mitosis; most abundant . -They have melanocytes which synthesize melanin; they are picked up by keratinocytes and shade their nuclei from UV -It also has Merkel Cells: touch receptors - Several layers: keratinocytes pushed superficially when basal cells divide -Appear spiny -Contains dendritic cells called Langerhans. -Macrophages from the bone marrow migrate to the epidermis; they protect the body against pathogens. -3-5 layers. -Flat keratinocytes. Division stops here. -It contains keratinohyalin granules and lamellated granules which lead to several functions like cells dehydration thickened of the cell membrane, formation of keratin , and waterproof the skin. -Thin translucent zone. - Found ONLY in thick skin -Keratinocytes are packed with keratin -No nucleus -No organelles -Up to 30 layers of keratinocytes cells -Dead, scaly, keratinocytes cells -Surface cells exfoliate
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associated with nerve fibers. 24. The dermis and hypodermis Dermis Hypodermis -0.6 mm to 3mm -It has collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers -Fibroblasts -Hair follicles and glands -It has 2 layers. 1. Papillary Layer: upward extensions of the dermis into the epidermis; it forms the ridges of the fingerprints ; It has areolar tissue and dermal papilla is in the upper 1/5 of the dermis. 2. Reticular Layer: it’s in the deeper 4/5 of the dermis; it has dense irregular CT -Subcutaneous tissue. The areas with more adipose tissue are the subcutaneous fat. -Functions: Energy reservoir, and thermal insulation -Here is where the hypodermis injections are injected because is highly vascular.
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  • Fall '17
  • patty finkenstadt
  • Cells of Connective Tissue

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