A theory that suggests that psychopathy fail to use

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: a theory that suggests that psychopathy fail to use contextual cues that are peripheral to a dominant response set to modulate their behaviour. Study In cold blood: characteristics of criminal homicides as a function of psychopathy Purpose Examine the relationship between psychopathy and instrumentality (versus reactivity) of homicides Participants 123 homicide offenders from two canadian federal prisons; BC & Nova Scotia Mean Age = 41.8 years Mean age at time of current homicide = 30 years
Psychopathy PCL-R (Hare, 1991) (psychopathy check list) You get a total score, Factor 1 (interpersonal factors), and Factor 2 (lifestyle – lack of reponsibility) Continuous - e.g., 0 to 40 for total score Dichotomous - Psychopath = total score of 30 or higher - Nonpsychopath = total score of 29 or lower PCL-R scores were already on file for most offenders For 29 offenders without PCL-R scores already on file, it was scored for this study by trained students from available file information Homicide Coding Coded from official files for most recent homicide 4-point rating of violence ranging from purely reactive (1) to purely instrumental (4) Also collapsed 4-point scale: primarily reactive (1 or 2) versus primarily instrumental (3 or 4) 4 Point Homicide Ratings Purely reactive (1) “high level of spontaneity/impulsivity and a lack of planning…” Reactive/instrumental (2) Both reactive and instrumental violence but “the primary quality of the violence leading to death had to be reactivity” Instrumental/reactive (3) Both instrumental and reactive violence but “the primary quality of the violence leading to death had to be instrumental” Purely instrumental (4) “clearly goal-oriented in nature with no evidence of an immediate emotional or situational provocation” Reactive: no planning involved, happened in the moment Inter-Rater Reliability PCL-R and homicide info coded from case file information by two coders for 21 (16.8%) randomly selected case files PCL-R Intraclass correlation (ICC) for continuous score = .92 for total, .81 for Factor 1, and .95 for Factor 2 Kappa for dichotomous psychopathy classification = .79 Homicide rating kappa = .81 Results Psychopaths’ homicides were more instrumental ( M = 3.47, SD = 0.82) than nonpsychopaths’ homicides ( M = 2.65, SD = 1.10) t (113) = 3.73, p < .001 Psychopaths were more likely to have used primarily instrumental violence (93.3%) than nonpsychopaths (48.4%) 2(1, χ N = 115) = 17.96, p < .001 Discussion Questions - What do these results mean? Psychopaths commit more instrumental homicides
- Why do you think psychopathy was associated with more instrumental violence?
- What are some implications of these findings for treatment of homicide offenders?
- What are the principle of effective correctional interventions?

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