4. All cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction 5. Controversies to which the United States is a party 6. Controversies between two or more states 7. Controversies between a state and citizens of another state. 8. Controversies between citizens of different states 9. Controversies between a state (or its citizens) and a foreign country (or its citizens) 10. All cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls. o Civil Procedure: A case heard under civil procedure usually involves a dispute between two or more people or a corporation. Most civil cases are centered around property and personal rights. EX: Divorce cases, personal injury cases The state doesn’t take sides in civil cases. The private parties hire attorneys to represent them. o Criminal Cases: A criminal procedure must be brought when an individual stands accused of committing an act prohibited by law. Misdemeanors are minor offences punishable by a small fine or imprisonment of less than a year. EX: Drunkenness, gambling (Minor offences and the first level) Felonies are offenses serious enough to warrant heavy fines, long prison terms, or even the death penalty. EX: Murder, grand theft auto
4. How are judges selected, and what do they do? o 8. Giving clear and proper instructions to the jury o 9. Maintaining a calm and dignified manner no matter what happens in the courtroom. 5. What happens when a case goes to trial? Begins with an injury and files a complaint that will usually identify the plaintiffs and the defendants. The defendant will file a response. After that is the discovery to collect evidence. Trying A Civil Suit: o Summoning witnesses: Each party has the right to ask the court to require the appearance of its own witnesses at the trial, the judge can force reluctant witnesses to appear by using legal orders that are called subpoenas , a witness who
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