From a social perspective genre is a socially ratified way using language in

From a social perspective genre is a socially

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institutional context. From a social perspective, genre is “a socially ratified way of using language in connection with a particular type of social activity” (Fairclough, 1995, p. 14). From a rhetorical perspective, genre is “tying linguistic and substantive similarities to regularities in human spheres of activities” (Freedman and Medway, 1995, p. 1). Genre is also defined as “consistencies in the communicative purposes” (Bhatia, 1993; Swales, 1990). Some scholars have viewed genre as ‘context of culture’ (Martin, 1992) that is recognized by the recurrence of the register in a ‘context of situation’ (Halliday, 1985). This section discussed four main approaches to genre that are the systemic functional approach (SFL), new rhetoric, English for specific purposes (ESP) and Bhatia’s (2004) critical genre analysis (CGA). The interesting issue about these four approaches is the differencing methods used to identify the genre. SFL placed a great emphasis on the text to recognize the context, while new rhetoric approach placed more emphasis on the context to understand the text. ESP and CGA, however, placed an equal amount of emphasis on the text and the context. 2.2.1 Systemic Functional Linguistic (SFL) Approach to Genre SFL or the ‘Sydney School’ (Hyland, 2002) is based on Halliday’s systemic functional grammar (SFG) approach. Halliday’s (1985) approach is functional grammar as opposed to ‘formal grammar’ and functional as it intends to interpret the texts, the system and the linguistic structures. His approach is systemic as the structures that people tend to use in certain recurrent situations are systematic.
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