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The process by which receptor cells change environmental energy into neural impulses that can be sent through the nervous system.Weber's LawRelationship between the amount of a stimulus required to produce a jnd and the amount of the standard stimulus.Aversion Therapy
To condition a different, opposing response.Behavioral DeficitsNot doing enough of a behavior.Behavioral ExcessesDoing too much of a behavior.Classical ConditioningLearning that results from the pairing of a neutral stimulus and an uncondi- tional stimulus.Conditioned (Secondary Reinforcer)Reinforcers that are not automatically reinforcing but become so because of their association with other reinforcers.Conditioned Response (CR)Response that occurs to the conditioned stimulus.Conditioned Stimulus (CS)Neutral stimulus that has been repeatedly paired with the unconditioned stimulus and now elicits the response.Continuous Reinforcement ScheduleBehaviors are reinforced every time they occur.Discriminative StimuliStimuli that are present when reinforcement is possible.ExtinctionEliminating the conditioned response by eliminating the pairing of the condi- tioned and unconditioned stimuli.Extinction BurstThe frequency of the inappropriate responses become more frequent and intense when reinforcement is withheld.Fixed Interval ScheduleReinforcement is available after a fixed amount of time has passed.Fixed Ratio ScheduleA fixed number of responses is required before reinforcement occurs.Flooding Generalized ReinforcerExposing the person to the anxiety-producing stimuli all at once while eliminating the possibility for escape.In Vivo DesensitizationActual exposure to the anxiety-provoking stimuliLaw of EffectOrganisms tend to repeat responses that have satisfying consequencesand tend not to repeat those that have unsatisfying consequences.MaturationThe biological process responsible for develop- mental changes.Negative ReinforcementTaking away an unpleasant stimulus.Neutral Stimulus (NS)Any environmental event that does not elicit the unconditioned response.Observational Learning
Learning by watching the behavior of othersOperant ConditioningManipulating possible consequences to produce learningPartial (internment) Reinforcement ScheduleOnly some instances of the response are reinforced.PhobiasUnrealistic and debilitating fears.Positive ReinforcementAdding a pleasant stimulus.Premack PrincipleThe use of more preferred activities to reinforce less preferred activities.Primary ReinforcerA reinforcer that is naturally rewarding, and typically have some connection to biological needs.PunishmentUnsatisfying consequences of behavior.ReinforcementSatisfying consequences of behavior.ReinforcerA stimulus that increases the likelihood of a response it follows.Response CostRemoval of something valued contingent upon inappropriate behavior.ShapingThe reinforcement of successive approximations to the target behavior.Social ReinforcerReinforcers having something to do with other individuals.