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Migrant workers lack human rights ii.International labor organizations have been ineffectual iii.Labor migrates from all over the world into the United States and maintain cultural and linguistic traditions iv.Multicultural effect: immigrants exploiting other immigrantsv.Amplification of “Ethnicism,” “nativism:” U.S. political discourse blame individuals andignore structured policies vi.Multiculturalism has been made a fragile ideal through the conditions in which labor circulation has intensified1.Labor export arrangements deny rights and representation to migrant workforces2.Deteriorating economies and communities in global-economic centers spark exclusionist politics that scapegoat cultural minoritiesV.Informalization a.The globalization project exaggerates market culture at the same time as it intensifies a growing culture of informal, marginal activityi.Casual, unregulated labor: cooperatives, street vending, or illegal activityii.Is it a real alternative or unrecognized margin of formal culture? Depends on contextiii.Formal vs. informal economy has legal/moral connotations; the distinction is either artificial or politicaliv.Informalization reveals limits of official development strategy and identifies alternative, informal livelihood strategiesv.“By ignoring informal activity, development policy discounts and marginalizes important mechanisms of social reproduction, on which the formal “productive economy” depends”b.Two domains of informal economy: i.Forms of social reproduction that complement production ii.Informal “productive activity” off the booksc.Neoliberal development and “planet of slums” go together i.Slumdwellers are 1/3 of the global urban population; nearly 50% of population of the global Southii.Highest percentages of slumdwellers are in Ethiopia, Chad, Afghanistan and Nepaliii.Greatest numbers are in Mumbai, Mexico City, Dhaka, Lagos, Cairo, Karachi, etc. iv.Slumdwellers in Dharavi generate $1.25 billion per year by recycling waste in Mumbaiv.Slumdwellers face violence of demolitionvi.Pavement dwellers aim for invisibility while always being on display d.Two aspects of informalization: i.New forms of individual and collective livelihood strategiesii.Global casualization of labor via corporate restructuring 1.Labor weakened and disorganized 2.Variation in the percentage of informalization of non-agricultural employment3.China: Interesting variation on labor informalizationa.1996-2000: 176 million peasants migrated to cities, but without the social benefits extended to urban residents b.Female percentage of informal workers rose from 45 to over 65%iii.Agricultural informalization1.Women comprise 50-90% of workers in export agriculture jobs of processing, producing, and retailing high-value horticultural crops 5
McMichael – Development and Social Change, 5e – Instructor’s Resources2.Labor rights for agricultural labor are weak: low wages, long hours, lax health and safety practices, gender stereotyping, sexual harassment3.