Health Providers and Local Agencies Accountability to ensure that all people

Health providers and local agencies accountability to

This preview shows page 9 - 12 out of 13 pages.

Health Providers and Local Agencies Accountability to ensure that all people are inoculated has been missing in England but will be critical for meeting the 1996 target of 90% immunization coverage. In the country’s con- text, health providers, the state, and local communities must assume responsibility for vaccina- tions and must be held accountable for the delivery of these services ( Koff, Gust, and Plotkin, 2014). As such, public health agencies ought to be at the forefront of efforts to ensure account- ability for nationwide immunization and to engage both private and public providers to guaran- tee the systematic delivery of services and assessment of performance. In England, attaining ac- countability for vaccinations necessitates good data on all citizens, their immunization status, and the delivery of vaccine services. In fact, the development of such information can be an in- fluential motivator. With evidence that children have not received appropriate inoculations,
Image of page 9
Pneumococcal Vaccination 10 providers, families, and policymakers all learn that certain actions are required and that they can be held accountable if they are not undertaken. The role of the Government Even though accountability and responsibility for immunisation must exist at different levels, the state has a duty as the holder of authority to act in a way that protects the public's wellbeing. Since the independent efforts of communities and individual providers are unable to guarantee comprehensive coverage, the state needs to recognise that it has a duty to identify and correct inequalities in immunisation services. As such, the state must design immunisation pro- grams that address the needs of all citizens and providers around the country in both the short run and longer run ( Scheirer and Dearing, 2011). What is more, the state must outline where re- sponsibilities for the preferred outcomes should lie. This will ensure that public or private providers can evaluate the citizens’ immunisation needs and provide services that address those needs. Ideally, every person living in the country will have a medical home with a particular pri- mary care provider, and providers will be responsible for providing services to an identifiable set of individuals. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Vaccinations Vaccine Efficiency Understanding the efficacy and effectiveness of vaccines as a public health intervention is critical for the acceptance in a country with radical anti-vaccine supporters. A number of techniques can be used to explore vaccines’ effectiveness and efficacy and most are undertaken in controlled clinical settings. To begin with, human challenge trials are essential in the design and development of vaccines and the results of such trials have proven valid in understanding the efficacy and effectiveness of inoculations ( Dubé et al., 2013). These trials involve the deliberate
Image of page 10
Pneumococcal Vaccination 11 exposure of human subjects to infectious agent in controlled settings. However, most scholars do not recommend them but when adopted, these trials can streamline and accelerate the development of vaccines. These trials are useful in cases where there are unsuitable nonclinical models, known immunological correlate of protection, and when other trials are impractical ( Scheirer and Dearing, 2011). Preliminary efficacy trials, based on immunogenicity and safety
Image of page 11
Image of page 12

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 13 pages?

  • Spring '20
  • Gust, Plotkin

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors