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Trojan Horses: virus embedded into a legitimate fileoWorms: propagate themselves throughout the Internet with no user intervention. oSteal Virus: more advanced, changes its own bit pattern to become undectable by virus scanners. oAcitive Content: viruses that are downloaded when users access certain websites.Most browsers prevent thisoOnce viruses are installed on a computer, it may be difficult to remove them.oViruses can modify themselves as they move to other computers, changing their signature to become harder to detect. oSpyware: a form of virus that logs everything a user is doing on their computer, unbeknownst to them. oVirus Hoaxes: not viruses but false virus alerts being sent and resent by individualsSubstantial unnecessary network traffic, or unwanted actions by user (being told certain files must be deleted toavoid virus) Email bombing: targeting a specific computer or network, with the intent of disrupting it’s normal functioningoSend a large number of requests, emails, or synchronization (SYN) messages to fill the target’s mailboxes, system, communication port, or memory buffers with the intent of blocking legitimate messages from entering the systems or overloading the system to make it carsh.oSmurfing: when a hacker uses an innocent third party to multiply the messages being sent to the intended target (such as a university server)Hackers place software agents on the innocent third party’s computer, these programs then help them launch their attacks when they decide to strikeoDistributed Denial of Service Attacks: same as Smurfing but with multiple computers. oWhy would someone attack? May be disgruntled employee orfor a political reason-protesting a company’s stand on some issue.
Hactivism: finding information that if revelaed will advance human causes. oAll of these detrimental because any downtime in computer systems/networks can mean lost sales/revenues, and loss of productivityUnauthorized access: illegal access to systems, application, or data. oOne of biggest worries for organizations is theft of data (customer info, trade secrets, etc.) oCan also be used to damage info or applications on a system, leading to a type of denial of service. oOrganizational insiders often perpetrate unauthorized access- Have knowledge needed to hack into system to obtain info. Canbe difficult to identify because they could be passive (recordingand listening to transmissions)Can obtain passwords which then lets them access info on an organization’s system thru a valid accounto