populaces and thus an option for the researcher. Hence it allowed the researcher to strike a balance and achieve equal representation between both rural and urban participants. 3.4 Target Population. The target population is defined as the entire group of individuals or objects to which the researcher is interested in the generalization of the research conclusions or findings (Asiamah et al, 2009). Engel and Schutt (2009) note that the target population denotes the greater community to which the researcher wishes to generalize his study findings. The target population is the entire group of people from which the study sample was drawn. In this study, the target
population consisted of all the parents in Dema Peri-urban. According to the 2012 Census, Dema Peri-Urban has a population of 3000 people. 2500 were parents either males or females from which the study sample was drawn (Zimstas, 2012). Also, since the researcher triangulated both qualitative and qualitative methods for the study the same population was targeted for both interviews and completion of the questionnaire (Flick 2004:24). Included in the target population for this study were 15 key informants from child protection non-governmental organizations and government ministries who work with children. Moreover, Martinez and Mesa (2016) argue that the selection of a target population must consider the availability of participants, the rationale for selecting a particular group, cost involved, and the risks and opportunities involved. In this study, the targeted population fully meet the above considerations which made sampling feasible. 3.5 Sampling Sampling can be defined as the selection of a fraction of the population being studied (Schoefield, 1960). Sampling is also known as sample design and can be defined as ‘the technique or the procedure the researcher may adopt in selecting items for the sample’ (Cothari, 2004: 55). A sample is “a smaller (but hopefully representative) collection of units from a population used to determine truths about that population. (Field, 2005). In other words, a sample denotes the people to whom data is collected and findings are generalized. A sample should represent the larger population to enable the researcher to generalize the findings to the study population (Blaikie, 2018; Long, 20014; Rubin & Babbie, 2017). In this study, the researcher employed both probability and nonprobability sampling techniques. 3.6 Sample size In this study, the sample size consisted of 153 parents in Dema Peri-Urban which determined by the Cochran (1975) formula of sample size determination. n = Z²pq e² Where Z = 1.65 for 90 % level of confidence p= Desired population Total population q= p-1 e=0.05 (margin of error)
p= 2500 3000 p=0.83 q= 1-q q= 1-0.83 q=0.17 n= 1.65²×0.83×0.17 0.05² n= 2.7225 ×0.83×0.17 0.0025 n= 0.384 0.0025 n= 153 3.6 Sampling methods and techniques Since the study was underpinned by both qualitative and qualitative research design, both probability and non-probability samplings were employed. The probability sampling technique was utilized for quantitative design while the non-probability sampling technique was utilized for the qualitative design.
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